Insight Prioritisation

A total of 209 insights were generated, including those documented spontaneously during the analysis process and those generated through applying the prompt questions. A prioritisation process was undertaken by the research team, which involved each member identifying those insights they thought were most likely to effectively contribute to the development of new designs for improving safety at rail level crossings. The more highly prioritised insights were then used to develop the materials for the participatory design workshop activities.

Design Process Planning

The CWA-DT provides templates for developing a design brief and documenting the design criteria. The design brief ensures that the design process is appropriate for the project and that it remains driven by the sociotechnical systems theory philosophy throughout any design application. It also enables clear communication about the background and purpose of the design process, which assists if additional stakeholders need to be briefed as the design process proceeds. It provides a short summary of the approach and may be supplemented with additional project management tools, such as detailed project schedules and budgets, depending on the size and scope of the project.

The design brief developed during the design planning stage of this project outlined the aim of the design task as ‘to develop design concepts that will increase safety at Victorian public rail level crossings’.

The scope was constrained to improve at-grade interfaces, rather than the development of grade separation options (i.e. the construction of bridges or tunnels). Further, the focus was on shaping desired behaviour, rather than improving technological reliability. Finally, the designs were not intended to focus on reducing incidents involving intentional self-harm at rail level crossings; however, it was noted that it would be beneficial if design concepts introduced some positive indirect effects on such behaviour.

Key measures for determining the success of the design process should be documented in the design criteria template. It is good practice to define up front the criteria that will be used to measure project success. The design criteria should be drawn from the values and priority measures identified in the Work Domain Analysis phase of the CWA. They should also assess the extent to which design outcomes reflect sociotechnical systems theory principles.

In the current CWA-DT application, the design criteria were drawn from the Work Domain Analysis and from sociotechnical systems theory principles. In terms of the Work Domain Analysis criteria, the values and priority measures were selected with emphasis on the safety-related values: Minimise risk, collisions, trauma, injuries, fatalities, near-miss events and road rule violations; and Maximise efficiency, reliability and conformity with standards and regulations. It was determined that the designs should also align with the sociotechnical systems theory content principles to be successful.

In addition, the design criteria noted that a form of cost-benefit analysis would be required, given the limited government funding available to upgrade rail level crossings.

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