Expert Model Narrative
The Expert Model Narrative guides the reader through the CHEMM Expert Models, providing descriptions of the key variables (termed nodes) and the relationships among the variables (termed influences). Two Models are presented. The first Model depicts a system perspective, a more general model providing the context within which CHEMM will be employed. The second Model depicts a user perspective illustrating: the influences that drive individuals to use CHEMM, how they use it, their desired outcomes, and the qualities that will be used to gauge the effectiveness of CHEMM .
Influence ofthe CHEMM Tool on Planning, Preparedness, and Emergency Response to Hazardous Chemical Exposures: System Perspective
The System Perspective CHEMM Expert Model is presented in Fig. 8.1.
The Model starts in the upper left corner with Drivers (Fig. 8.2) or initiating influences on the system including influences overall needs and activities for Public
Fig. 8.1 System perspective CHEMM Expert Model
Influence of the CHEMM Tool on Planning, Preparedness...
Fig. 8.2 System Drivers
Health and Safety, influences from the Department of Health and Human Services, and influences related to the Types of Chemical Exposure Emergencies where CHEMM would be useful. Additional detail for each variable is provided by the bullets found within the Driver nodes. These bullets are also variables; they are grouped under parent nodes to simplify the structure of the model:
- • Public Health and Safety Drivers include: the need for Training, Planning and Preparedness for emergencies; the need for Personal Protection; and the need for Treatment of Injured individuals.
- • Drivers associated with the US Department of Health and Human Services, include: its Mission and Mandate; the resulting Prioritization and Funding; and the Capability and Expertise of HHS employees that can be applied to its activities.
- • The Types of Chemical Exposure Emergencies relevant to CHEMM include: Industrial Accidents; Transportation Accidents; and Terrorism.
The influences of these variables propagate through the Model from one node to the next as illustrated by the arrows connecting the nodes. The arrows indicate the primary influences and the primary direction of influence. As such, other influences may exist between nodes even if no arrow is shown and some influence may exist going in the direction opposite of that indicated by the arrows, reflecting a feedback over time.
At the center of the model are the nodes representing CHEMM itself (Fig. 8.3). The Quality of Information Content and the Quality of Information Provision are depicted as the primary variables determining the ease and effectiveness with which the user can access information contained in CHEMM. Research participants in this
Fig. 8.3 The CHEMM Tool
project identified a number of specific criteria (or subvariables) within each of these (Fig. 8.3):
- • The Quality of Information Content is determined by the degree to which the information:
- - Comes from Trusted Sources that are authoritative, credible, validated, and credentialed, preferably from an experience-, evidence-, and consensus-based (peer reviewed) process;
- - Is Comprehensive, Precise, and Accurate;
- - Is Up-to-date; and
- • Is Usable, with a decision-making focus and at an appropriate language level.
- • The Quality of CHEMM Information Provision is determined by the degree to which the information is provided in a manner that is:
- - Easily Accessible, Available, and Reliable;
- - Usable (e.g., well Organized and Easily Navigable; and
- - Aligned with Needs of the User in a manner that is robust, customizable, and effective for a wide range of users, contexts, and entry points.
Additional variables related to CHEMM are presented in the User Perspective model presented on in the next section (Fig. 8.8).
The Information Needs node in the lower left side of the model represents the types of information needed by CHEMM Stakeholders—including first responders,
Fig. 8.4 Information Needs
Fig. 8.5 Quality of Stakeholder Engagement
first receivers, trainers, planners, or other key users—depicted in the node immediately above it. Examples of Information Needs include (Fig. 8.4): •
Training, Planning, and Preparing;
- • Agent Identification;
- • Triage Criteria;
- • Situation and Symptom Assessment;
- • Personal and Facility Protection, Actions, and Equipment;
- • Site and Facility Controls and anticipatory guidance to support Logistical decisions;
- • Casualty Treatment and Handling;
- • Post Incident Decontamination; and
- • Notification and Communication Guidance.
As illustrated by the Quality of Stakeholder Engagement node near the center of the model, CHEMM stakeholders can be both, information users (e.g., seeking needed information in an emergency scenario or training exercise), or information providers (e.g., providing information about experiences in emergency scenarios or feedback on the use of CHEMM, Fig. 8.5).
The Entry Points node depicts the initial data specified by users that is used by CHEMM to highlight options most frequently needed for the user type or informational need to help them get to the needed information quickly. The Entry Points include (Fig. 8.6):
Fig. 8.6 Entry Points
Fig. 8.7 Impact of Information and Desired Outcomes
Known/suspected Incident Type;
- • Known/Suspected Chemical Agents;
- • Observable Indicators (for example, Symptoms, Sights, etc.); and
- • User Type
The model ends with the nodes in the lower right where the CHEMM Information Provision is shown influencing the Impact of Information Provision, and ultimately, the Desired Outcomes, for public health and safety (Fig. 8.7).
The Impact ofInformation Provision is the degree to which the information provided by CHEMM: will Increase Knowledge, provides Timely Access, is Informative, and is Actionable.
The Impact of Information Provision directly influences the Desired Outcomes for CHEMM use. Impacts include: Improved Response and Outcome in emergencies; and Improved Credibility/Confidence in First Responders and First Receivers.