Issues in agricultural trade policy proceedings of the 2014 OECD Global Forum on Agriculture

ForewordIssues in agricultural trade policy: An overviewEvolving agricultural marketsThe landscape of agricultural support policies has evolvedDo changes in agricultural markets require new principles for formulating future agricultural trade and domestic policies?Agricultural market liberalisation remains important, including for food securityNotesReferencesAre past OECD analyses of agricultural policy reforms relevant to current policy and market settings?IntroductionMarket situation and outlookPrice levelVolatilityEvolution of the policy landscapeProducer supportImport measuresExport measuresHow restrictive are WTO disciplines?Market and trade impacts of agricultural policiesTrade impacts of improving market accessTrade impacts of reducing export subsidies and equivalent measuresWelfare impacts of agricultural policy reformImpacts of export restrictionsImpacts of non-tariff measuresImpacts of stockholding for price stabilisationAchieving optimal policy performancePolicy insights generated by OECDThe world has changed: Are past findings still relevant?Implications for agricultural trade negotiations post-BaliConclusionsNotesReferencesCurrent domestic policy settings in the context of past and potential international agreementsIntroductionBackgroundTimeline towards the draft modalities and BaliContext for examining countries’ positioningMarket accessAgreement on AgricultureDraft modalitiesSpecifics on tariffsSensitive products and tariff rate quotasSpecial products, tariff escalation, tariff simplificationSpecial agricultural safeguard, tropical products, preferencesSpecial safeguard mechanismBali decisionMarket access situationTariffprofilesExtent of tariff reductions under the draft modalitiesCountry-specific discussion for selected countriesRecent developments in tariff settingsMarket access digestExport competitionExport subsidiesDraft modalitiesBali declarationExport subsidies: SituationSummary of export subsidy situationAssessmentExport financing supportDraft modalitiesExport financing support: situationAssessmentExporting agricultural state trading enterprisesDraft modalitiesExporting agricultural state trading enterprises: situationInternational food aidDomestic supportProduct-specific AMSsOverall trade-distorting supportCaps on product-specific AMSsBlue box paymentsOverall trade-distorting supportAssessment of Current Total AMSAssessment ofproduct-specific AMSs, blue box payments, OTDSDomestic support digestDiscussionCountry-specific situationsPenalty for acquiring at administered pricesWhy penalise the use of administered prices?Change policy or change the rules?Established policy as the driver of changing the rulesEconomic analysisExport prohibitions and restrictionsNeed for long-term perspectiveConclusionNotesReferencesReview of the performance and impacts of recent stockholding policiesIntroductionScope of the study TerminologyPerformance of recent public stockholding policies that influence prices Defining the variables of interestBuffer stocks and price stabilisationSocial safety net stocks and food securityReview of country case studiesExperiences in AfricaExperiences in AsiaOther impacts of recent public stockholding policiesDistributional impactsFiscal impactsCrowding out of the private sectorInternational spilloversConclusionsNotesReferences
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