Notes

  • 1. I am grateful to Jeffrey Bussolini and Marius Gudmand-H0yer for their comments on an earlier draft of this piece. It was the former who drew my attention on Foucault’s use of the term “sumbolon.”
  • 2. I am thinking of Pasquale Pasquino’s comment about Foucault that while “he affected each one of us deeply, he kept those closest from remaining faithful,” in “The Political Theory of War and Peace,” Economy and Society Vol. 22, No. 1 (1993): 84.
  • 3. Michel Foucault, On the Government of the Living. Lectures at the College de France, 1979-1980 (New York, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), pp. 32-33. Jeffrey Bussolini, “Governmentality, Oikonomia, Form of Life: Agamben and Foucault on Being and Acting,” presented at the Government of Life workshop, Copenhagen, April 2013.
  • 4. “Lecture of 17 March 1971” and “Oedipal Knowledge,” in Michel Foucault, Lectures on the Will to Know: Lectures at the College de France, 1970-1971, transl. Graham Burchell (London: Palgrave Macmillian, 2013), pp. 183-201 and 229-57. “Truth and juridical forms,” in Michel Foucault, Power, The Essential Works, Volume 3 (New York: The New Press, 2000), pp. 1-89.
  • 5. Foucault, “Truth and juridical forms,” pp. 16-17.
  • 6. Foucault, On the Government of the Living, p. 5.
  • 7. Foucault, “Lecture of 17 March 1971,” p. 199.
  • 8. Foucault, “Truth and juridical forms,” p. 19.
  • 9. Ibid., p. 22.
  • 10. Michel Foucault, The Government ofSelfand Others, Lectures at the College de France, 1982-1983, transl. Graham Burchell (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), p. 84.
  • 11. Michel Foucault, Security, Territory, Population. Lectures at the College de France 1977-1978, transl. Graham Burchell (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), p. 254.
  • 12. Michel Foucault, “The order of discourse,” in Robert Young ed. Untying the Text: a Post-Structuralist Reader (Boston, MA: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981), p. 73.
  • 13. Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison, transl. Alan Sheridan (London: Allen Lane, 1977).
  • 14. Michel Foucault, History of Sexuality, Volume 1: An Introduction, transl. Robert Hurley (London: Allen Lane, 1979).
  • 15. Michel Foucault, Society Must Be Defended. Lectures at the College de France, 1975-1976, transl. David Macey (New York, Picador, 2003).
  • 16. Ibid., pp. 15-16, pp. 47-48.
  • 17. Foucault, History of Sexuality, 144. Michel Foucault, The Birth of Biopolitics, Lectures at the College de France, 1978-1979, transl. Graham Burchell (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), p. 321.
  • 18. Foucault, History ofSexuality, pp. 88-89.
  • 19. Foucault, Society Must Be Defended, 260: “Nazism alone took the play between the sovereign right to kill and the mechanisms of biopower to this paroxysmal point. But this play is in fact inscribed in the workings of all States.”
  • 20. See Mitchell Dean and Kaspar Villadsen, State Phobia and Civil Society. The Political Legacy of Michel Foucault (Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 2016).
  • 21. Foucault, The Birth of Biopolitics, p. 2.
  • 22. M. Foucault, Security, Territory, Population, Lectures at the College de France, 1977-1978, transl. Graham Burchell (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), pp. 1-86.
  • 23. Ibid, p. 8.
  • 24. Foucault, Birth of Biopolitics. On the distinction between finis as the end of a process and telos as its definite goal, see Karl Lowith, Meaning in History (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1949), p. 18.
  • 25. Foucault, Birth of Biopolitics, pp. 259-260.
  • 26. See the various contributions to Daniel Zamora and Michael Behrent eds. Foucault and Neoliberalism (Cambridge: Polity, 2016).
  • 27. Foucault, Birth of Biopolitics, p. 312.
  • 28. Andrew Dilts, “From ‘Entrepreneur of the Self’ to ‘Care of the Self’: Neoliberal Governmentality and Foucault’s Ethics,” Foucault Studies 12 (2011): 130-146.
  • 29. See Ewald’s evaluation of Foucault’s “apology” in Gary S. Becker, Francois Ewald, and Bernard Harcourt, “Becker on Ewald on Foucault on Becker: American Neoliberalism and Michel Foucault’s 1979 ‘Birth of Biopolitics’ lectures,” Coase-Sandor Institute for Law and Economics Working Paper No. 614 (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Law School, 2012), pp. 5-6. On the debate on Foucault’s supposed affinities with neo-liberalism, see Gros in this volume and Zamora and Behrent, Foucault and Neoliberalism; for a thorough analysis of “human capital” in Gary Becker’s analysis, see Paltrinieri in this volume.
  • 30. On the city-citizen and shepherd flock games, see Michel Foucault “Omnes et singulatim: towards a criticism of political reason”, in The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, volume 2, edited by S. McMurrin (Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press, 1981), pp. 223-254. There are four and a half lectures on the pastorate in Foucault, Security, Territory, Population.
  • 31. Foucault, Security, Territory, Population, pp. 150-151.
  • 32. On the potential for eschatological counter-conducts based on the idea of civil society, see Foucault, Security, Territory, Population, pp. 355-357.
  • 33. Ibid., p. 314.
  • 34. Ibid., pp. 261-267, 266.
  • 35. Foucault, Birth of Biopolitics, p. 297.
  • 36. Michel Foucault, “The Confession of the Flesh” in C. Gordon ed. Power/ Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972-1977 (Brighton: Harvester, 1980), p. 195; and Foucault, Security, Territory, Population, p. 30.
  • 37. Ibid., p. 263.
  • 38. For example, Giorgio Agamben, The Kingdom and the Glory: For a Theological Genealogy of Economy and Government, transl. L. Chiesa with M. Mandarini (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011).
  • 39. Foucault, Security, Territory, Population, p. 234.
  • 40. Ibid., p. 290.
  • 41. Ibid., p. 294.
  • 42. Ibid., pp. 302-306.
  • 43. Ibid., pp. 295-298.
  • 44. Ibid., p. 294, pp. 299-304. Carl Schmitt, The Nomos of the Earth in the International Law of Jus Publicum Europaeum, transl. Gary L. Ulmen (New York: Telos Press, 2003), pp. 140-148. For a comparison ofFoucault with Schmitt on these points, see Mitchell Dean, Governmentality, Power and Rule in Modern Society (London: Sage, 2010), pp. 239-240, and, more broadly, Mitchell Dean, The Signature of Power: Sovereignty, Governmentality and Biopolitics (London: Sage, 2013), Chapters 5 and 6.
  • 45. Foucault, Birth of Biopolitics, p. 51.
  • 46. Ibid., p. 52.
  • 47. Ibid., p. 56.
  • 48. Ibid., pp. 57-58.
  • 49. Ibid., p. 58.
  • 50. Foucault, Security, Territory, Population, p. 242. Foucault, Birth of Biopolitics, p. 282.
  • 51. Ibid., p. 278.
  • 52. Foucault, Security, Territory, Population, p. 300.
  • 53. Ibid.
  • 54. Birth of Biopolitics, pp. 57-58.
  • 55. The original formulation is found at Michel Foucault, Securite, territoire, population, p. 362: “Pratique economique, gestion de la population, un droit public articule sur le respect de la liberte et des libertes, une police a fonction repressive...quarte elements qui viennent s’ajouter au grand dispositif diplomatico-militaire qui, lui, n’a guere ete modifie au XVIIIe siecle.”
  • 56. Dean, Governmentality, pp. 242-7 for elaboration.
  • 57. David Held, Global Convenant: the Social Democratic Alternative to the Washington Consensus (Cambridge: Polity, 2004), p. 132.
  • 58. Foucault, Birth of Biopolitics, p. 6.
  • 59. Ibid., pp. 8-10.
  • 60. Ibid., pp. 10-12.
  • 61. Ibid., p. 12.
  • 62. Max Weber, Economy and Society: an Outline of Interpretative Sociology, volume 1, edited by G. Roth and C. Wittich (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press), p. 54. Foucault, History ofSexuality, Part 5.
  • 63. See Blandine Kriegel, The State and the Rule of Law (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996).
  • 64. On “state-phobia”, see Foucault, Birth of Biopolitics, pp. 75-79. On “demonic” combination of power games, see Foucault, Omnes et singula- tim, p. 239. On its inscription within all modern states, see quote at note 19 above. On “thanatopolitics” as a counterpart of biopolitics, see Michel Foucault, Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault, edited by L. H. Martin, H. Gutman and P. H. Hutton (London, Tavistock, 1988), p. 160.
  • 65. Weber, Economy and Society, p. 55.
  • 66. Dean, Signature of Power.
 
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