Notes

  • 1. Michel Foucault, The Birth of Biopolities. Lectures at the College de France, 1978-9, ed. by Michel Senellart; transl. by Graham Burchell (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).
  • 2. See especially Laurent Thevenot, “Un gouvernement par les normes” in Bernard Conein, Laurent Thevenot (eds), Cognition et information en societe (Paris: Editions de l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 1997), pp. 204-242; Elizabeth C. Dunn, “Standards and Person-Making in East Central Europe,” in Aihwa Ong and Stephen J. Collier (eds.), Global Assemblages. Technology, Politics and Ethics as Anthropological Problems (Oxford: Blackwell, 2005), pp. 173-93.
  • 3. Amy Slaton, Janet Abbate, “The Hidden Lives of Standards. Technical Prescriptions and the Transformation of Work in America,” in Technologies of Power, ed. Michael T. Allen and Gabrielle Hecht (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001), pp. 95-144; Martha Lampland and Leigh Star (eds.), Standards and Their Stories. How Quantifying, Classifying and Formalizing Practices Shape Everyday Life (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008).
  • 4. Beatrice Hibou, The Bureaucratization of the World in the Neoliberal Era transl. by Andrew Brown (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015) and Beatrice Hibou (ed), La Bureaucratisation neoliberale (Paris : La Decouverte, 2013).
  • 5. Jean-Fran^ois Bayart, “La revanche des societes africaines,” in Politique Africaine, n°11, September 1983, pp. 95-127, and also, by the same author: “L’enonciation du politique,” Revue Frangaise de Science Politique, 35(3), 1985, pp. 343-73 and “ La Cite bureaucratique en Afrique sub- saharienne” in La Bureaucratisation neoliberale, ed. Beatrice Hibou (Paris, La Decouverte, 2013), pp. 291-313.
  • 6. Foucault, The Birth of Biopolitics, p. 30, p. 63 and pp. 64-65.
  • 7. Foucault, The Birth of Biopolitics, Lecture of 14 February, p. 140.
  • 8. Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation. The political and economic origins of our time (Boston, Beacon Press, 1957).
  • 9. Fernand Braudel, Capitalism and Material Life, 1400-1800, transl. by Miriam Kochan (London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1973); Pierre Rosanvallon, Le capitalisme utopique. Histoire de l’idee de marche (Paris, Le Seuil, 1999 [1979]).
  • 10. Foucault, The Birth of Biopolitics, p. 133.
  • 11. Andrew Barry, Thomas Osborne, Nicolas Rose (eds), Foucault and Political Reason. Liberalism, Neo-Liberalism and Rationalities of Government (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996); Nicolas Rose, Powers of Freedom. R.eframing Political Thought (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999).
  • 12. Pierre Dardot, Christian Laval, The New Way of the World: on Neoliberal Society, transl. by Gregory Elliot (London, Verso, 2014).
  • 13. Dunn, “Standards and person-making in East Central Europe.”
  • 14. Beatrice Hibou, “Retrait ou redeploiement de l’Etat?,” Critique internationale, n°1, October 1998: 151-68; Beatrice Hibou, “Preface to the English Edition,” in Privatising the State, transl. by Jonathan Derrick (London: Hurst and New York, Columbia University Press, 2004), pp. vii-xvi.
  • 15. Especially Max Weber, Economy and Society, An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, vol. 1 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), pp. 225-6.
  • 16. Arthur L. Stinchcombe, When Formality Works. Authority and Abstraction in Law and Organizations (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2001).
  • 17. Ibid., p. 184. See also Andrew Barry, Political Machines. Governing a Technological Society (London, The Athlone Press, 2001).
  • 18. A recurrent theme in the work of Laurent Thevenot: Laurent Thevenot, “Jugement ordinaire et jugement de droit,” Annales ESC, 6, 1992, pp. 1279-99; “L’autorite a l’epreuve de la critique. Jusqu’aux oppressions du ‘gouvernement par l’objectif’,” in Quel present pour la critique sociale?, ed. Bruno Frere (Brussels, Desclee de Brouwer, 2012).
  • 19. Thevenot, “Un gouvernement par les normes,” p. 208.
  • 20. Luc Boltanksi, On Critique. A Sociology of Emancipation, transl. by Gregory Elliot (Cambridge, Polity Press, 2011).
  • 21. Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thevenot, On Justification: Economies of Worth, transl. by Catherine Porter (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2006).
  • 22. Alain Desrosieres, Politics of Large Numbers: A History of Statistical Reasoning, transl. by Camille Naish (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1998); Theodore Porter, Trust in Numbers. The Pursuit of Objectivity in Science and Public Life (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1996); Francois Fourquet, Les Comptes de la puissance. Histoire de la comptabilite nationale et du plan (Paris, Editions Encres, 1980).
  • 23. Michel de Certeau, The Practice ofEveryday Life, transl. by Steven Rendall (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1988).
  • 24. An argument I developed elsewhere with Boris Samuel: Beatrice Hibou and Boris Samuel, “Macroeconomie et politique en Afrique,” Politique Africaine, n°124, (2012): 5-27.
  • 25. Fourquet, Les comptes de la puissance, p. 358 (our translation).
  • 26. Ibid; Michel Foucault, “Nietzsche, genealogy, history,” in Paul Rabinow (general ed.), Essential Works of Foucault, 1954—84, vol. 2, Aesthetics, Method, andEpistemologyt ed. by James Faubion, transl. by Robert Hurley et al. (London: Penguin, 2000), pp. 369-391.
  • 27. On the way the concepts of “national accountancy,” “forecasting,” and “planning” spring from a will to power and have come to be used as tools in its service to achieve prosperity and well-being, see Fourquet, Les comptes de la puissance. Herbert Marcuse developed a similar argument when he noted that norms are “externalized”: they are defined by a collective and institutional system of abstractions produced by society as a whole. See Herbert Marcuse, “Some social implications of modern technology,” in The Essential Frankfurt School Reader, eds. Andrew Arato and Eike Gebhardt (London, Continuum, 1982 [1941]), pp. 138-62.
  • 28. I thank Philippe Bonditti for making me think more deeply about this process. See his analysis of abstraction in “Les concepts, parent pauvre des etudes (critiques) de securite? Proposition pour une archeologie des savoirs de la securite,” Etudes internationales, 46(2-3), 2015: 167-188.
  • 29. Isabelle Bruno, Emmanuel Didier, Benchmarking. L^tat sous pression statistique (Paris, La Decouverte, 2013).
  • 30. Henri Audier, “Les ‘ex’ negligent les profils scientifiques des candidats,” CAES du CNRS, Le Magazine, no. 97, (2011), pp. 12-13.
  • 31. Christian Walter (ed.), Nouvelles normes financieres. S’organiser face a la crise (Paris: Springer-Verlag France, 2010); Gregory Vanel, “La normalisation financiere internationale face a l’emergence de nouvelles autorites epistemiques americaines. Le cas de la filiere des chiffres,” Revue de la regulation, 3(4), 2008, online journal available at http://regulation. revues.org/4443 (verified on October 26, 2015).
  • 32. Fourquet, Les comptes de la puissance, p. 367.
  • 33. See Paul Veyne in Did the Greeks Believe in their Myths? An Essay on the Constitutive Imagination, transl. by Paula Wissing (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1988).
  • 34. Michel Foucault, The Government of Self and Others. Lectures at the College de France 1982-1983. transl. by Graham Burchell (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), (Lecture of March 2, 1983).
  • 35. Ibid. p. 310.
  • 36. Jean-Fran^ois Bayart, “Historicite de l’Etat importe,” in Bayart (ed.), La Greffe de l’Atat (Paris, Karthala, 1996), pp. 35-36, partially translated as “Finishing with the idea of the Third World: the concept of the political trajectory” in Rethinking Third World Politics, ed. James Manor (London: Longman, 1991), pp. 51-71.
  • 37. Here, I have been influenced by two very different lines of research. Firstly, that of Etienne Balibar on fictive ethnicity and the imaginary social community: see in particular Etienne Balibar and Immanuel Wallerstein, Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities, transl. (of Balibar) by Chris Turner (London, Verso, 1991). Secondly, that of Fran^oise Mengin in a very specific context: Taiwan and the fiction of a non-State which does not lead to the “non-recognition” of a State, but to the recognition of a “non-State’ (Fran^oise Mengin, “A Pretence ofPrivatisation. Taiwan’s External Relations” in Privatising the State, ed. Beatrice Hibou, transl. Jonathan Derrick (London, Hurst and New York, Columbia University Press, 2004), pp. 147-167.
  • 38. Michel Foucault, “Foucault etudie la raison d’Etat,” Dits et Ecrits, n° 280 (Paris, Gallimard - Quarto, 1980), pp. 856-860.
  • 39. Foucault, Dits et Ecrits, no.281, pp. 860-914.
  • 40. Michel Foucault, “Introduction,” in Dits et Ecrits, I. 1954-1969 (Paris, Gallimard, 1994), no. 7, p. 186.
  • 41. See Michel Foucault’s early writings, especially “Distance, aspect, origin,” in The Tel Quel Reader, ed. Patrick French and Roland-Francois Lack (London, Routledge, 1998), pp. 97-108, and “Behind the Fable,” transl. Pierre A. Walker, Critical Texts 5.2, 1988, pp. 1-5. See also Roland Barthes, Mythologies, transl. by Richard Howard and Annette Lavers (New York, Hill & Wang, 2012), and Writing Degree Zero, transl. by Annette Lavers and Colin Smith (New York, Hill & Wang, 2012); Marcuse, One Dimensional Man; and Veyne, Did the Greeks Believe in their Myths?
  • 42. Gilles Deleuze, Negotiations 1972-1990, transl. Martin Joughin (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995); Jean-Fran^ois Bayart, The Illusion of Cultural Identity (London, C. Hurst & Co., 2005).
  • 43. Boris Samuel, “L‘Education pour tous’. La production bureaucratique du reel,” in Beatrice Hibou (ed.), La bureaucratisation neoliberale (Paris: La Decouverte, 2013), pp. 263-90.
  • 44. This analysis of fiction is proposed by Yan Thomas in “Fictio legis. L’empire de la fiction romaine et ses limites medievales” in Les Operations du droit (Paris, Le Seuil/Gallimard, 2011), pp. 133-186 (p. 135). Our translation.
  • 45. Both quotes are from Max Weber, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, transl., ed., by H.H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946), p. 281.
 
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