Growth and Institutions in African Development

ForewordGrowth and institutions in African developmentGrowth, institutions and development outcomesDevelopment outcomesOverviewDETERMINANTS OF INDUSTRIAL EMBEDDEDNESSDOES THE LACK OF INNOVATION AND ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY RETARD ECONOMIC GROWTH?EXCHANGE-RATE REGIMES AND TRADEINTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEALTH, ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITYGrowth sectors, dynamics and distributionEMERGING EVIDENCE ON THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SECTORAL SOURCES OF GROWTHTOURISM AND ECONOMIC GROWTHHUNTING FOR LEOPARDS: LONG-TERM COUNTRY INCOME DYNAMICS IN AFRICAHALVING POVERTY IN SOUTH AFRICA: GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTIONAL ASPECTInstitutional developmentOUTFITS: NARROWLY TAILORED LAWS THAT HARM INSTEAD OF HELPDOES FOREIGN AID PROMOTE DEMOCRACY?WHO IS THE ALIEN? XENOPHOBIA AND POST-APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICAInstitutions and development outcomesHOW DOES COLONIAL ORIGIN MATTER FOR ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE IN SSA?INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS, PRIVATE SECTOR AND ECONOMIC GROWTHWOMEN’S LABOUR SUPPLY AND HOUSEHOLD INSURANCEConclusionNotesReferencesDeterminants of industrial embeddednessIndustrial embeddedness: key explanatory variablesDemand-side attributesSupply-side attributesData, methodology and resultsData environmentVariable definitionIndustrial sectorEmbeddednessForeign ownershipSupply-capacity deficitsNotesSize and ageNetwork membershipEstimation techniqueResultsConclusion and policy recommendationNotesReferencesDoes lack of innovation and absorptive capacity retard economic growth in Africa?Arguments in support of IC and AC for growth in AfricaLack of technological capability weakens Africa’s export performanceHistorical evidence supports the salience of AC and ICArguments against the salience AC and ICOversupply of scientists and engineers in AfricaInnovation and technology diffuse easily across countriesGrowth usually precedes AC and ICEmpirical analysisDependent variablesExplanatory variablesAbsorptive capacityInnovative capabilityInvestment in physical capitalPopulation growthPolitical riskOpenness of the economySize of the governmentData sourcesResults and discussionConclusions and policy implicationsNotesReferencesExchange-rate regimes and trade. Is Africa different?BackgroundMethodologyEstimation issuesDataEmpirical resultsSensitivity analysisAlternate variable definitionsAlternate model specificationSimultaneity concernsAlternate exchange-rate regime classificationConclusionNotesReferencesInterrelationships between health, environmental quality and economic activity. What consequences for economic convergence?Literature reviewEconomic growth and environmentGrowth and economic convergenceConsideration of the environmental aspectThe EKC hypothesisHealth and environmentHealth and economic developmentEmpirical analysisEstimation methodologyEconomic growth and environmentEconomic convergence and environmentExplanation through the role of health variableInterrelationships between income, health and environmentVariables and dataEconometric resultsEconomic growth and environmentEconomic convergence and environmental qualityRole of health outcomesInterrelationships between income, health and environmentConclusionNotesReferencesEmerging evidence on the relative importance of sectoral sources of growth in Sub-Saharan AfricaMyths and realities on economic growth in AfricaDeterminants of economic growthInitial conditionsGovernance and institutionsGeographyExternal factorsPoliciesShifting focus on sectoral driver of growth and development in AfricaNature and structure of economic growth in SSATheoretical and empirical methodology and data issuesEmpirical results and discussionsChannels of impactPolicy issues and recommendationsFinancial servicesTelecommunicationTourismInfrastructureConclusionNotesReferencesTourism and economic growth. African evidence from panel vector autoregressive frameworkRelated literatureTourism in AfricaEconometric framework and data sources Economic modelEndogeneity issues and the panel vector autoregressive modelEstimation and analysisAnalysisSummary and policy implicationsNotesReferencesHunting for leopards. Long-run country income dynamics in AfricaChaos without change: Africa’s long-run growth, 1975-2005Rich country, poor countryWhere you start is where you end upHunting for leopardsConclusionsNotesReferencesGrowth and distributional aspects of poverty reduction in South AfricaLiteratureHow high is poverty in South Africa?What does ‘halving poverty’ mean?Growing out of poverty?Method for simulating distributional changesWhat combinations of growth and pro-poor distributional change could halve poverty?ConclusionNotesReferencesOutfits: narrowly tailored laws that harm instead of helpBackground LiberiaLaw and developmentWHERE DOES THE LAW COME FROM?WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF LAW? FOR WHOM DOES THE LAW SERVE?WHAT IS THE FORCE OF LAW?DO LAWS ACTUALLY AFFECT BEHAVIOUR?DevelopmentTHEORIES OF DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT IN LIBERIA: WHAT IS THE OBJECTIVE?The law and development movementRule of lawApplication of the rule of law in LiberiaDoes rule of law actually work?THEORETICAL CRITIQUESPRACTICAL CRITIQUESThe Liberian telecommunications sectorOverview of the Liberian telecommunications sectorProfit potentialFINANCIAL GAINSSOCIAL GAINSExisting legal framework in Liberian telecomProblematic provisionsLiberia’s telecommunication law delegitimizes the informal economyThe catch-all provision provides unnecessary discretion that can all too easily be abused.ConclusionNotesReferencesDoes foreign aid support democracy development?The determinants of democracyNon-economic determinants of democracyColonial heritageEthnic diversityEconomic performance and democracyInstability of economic performance and democracy: causation and reverse causationDoes foreign aid promote democracy?Aid and democracyAid and growth: the stabilizing nature of aidEmpirical evidence The dataThe measure of term-of-trade instabilitySome stylized factsIdentification of causal effectsDealing with endogeneity issuesFindingsConclusions and policy implicationsNotesReferencesWho is the alien?Xenophobia in South Africa: facts and analysisFacts and figuresLiterature review on xenophobia and ethnic violenceDataJohannesburg inner cityThe econometric modelPotential selection biasesModelDemographic and migration history variablesSocio-economic variablesLegal variablesLocation controlsResultsStep 1: Which characteristics influence the probability of being victimized?Step 2: What characteristics make a foreigner an outsider?ConclusionNotesReferencesHow does colonial origin matter for economic performance in Sub-Saharan Africa?Historical overview of the probable mechanisms of transmission between colonial origins and growthMethodology Empirical modelChoice of estimatorEstimation strategyVariables and dataDiscussion of resultsStage two results based on HT estimationConclusionNotesReferencesInstitutional reforms, private sector and economic growth in AfricaReforms, business environment and economic performance of African countriesInstitutional reform effortsA strong preponderance of the informal sectorA relatively high number of private companiesInstitutions, private sector and growthThe indicators of institutional reformsInvestor protectionContract enforcementStarting a businessPaying taxesTrading across bordersMethodological approachThe modelEmpirical equationsThe data and econometric strategyResults and interpretations of the econometric analysisPrivate investmentBank credit to private sectorForeign direct investmentThe growth rateConclusionNote:ReferencesWomen’s labour supply and household insurance in AfricaBackgroundData and descriptive statistics DataDescriptive statisticsModel specification and resultsBaseline specificationCountry-specific equationsGradients of the relationshipEmployment transitionsSpecification checksSub-region and region-fixed effectsOther specification checksDiscussionConclusionsNotesReferences
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