The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Thinking in Higher Education

Questions, context, and challengesWhat this book doesConsiderationsWhat should be done?Three rival perspectivesCritical thinking movementsToward a model of critical thinkingThe place of critical thinking in higher educationWhat is critical thinking?Critical thinking as reflective thinking (the “skills-and-judgments" view)A taxonomy of critical thinking skillsCritical thinking as dispositions (the “skills-plus-dispositions" view)A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositionsCritical thinking as a composite of skills and attitudesDimensions of criticality: An axis diagramCritical thinking as “criticality" (The “skills-plus-dispositions- plus-actions" view)What is “criticality"?An example of “criticality"The axis diagram revisitedCritical thinking as critical pedagogyThe axis diagram revisited againConclusionReferencesI What Is Critical Thinking in Higher Education?Critical Thinking: A Streamlined ConceptionBeginningsBrief listings of dispositions and abilities of the ideal critical thinkerCritical thinking dispositionsCritical thinking abilitiesExemplification of critical thinking dispositions and abilitiesThe charge of murder in this trialCritical thinking dispositions exemplifiedCritical thinking abilities exemplifiedThe next stepSummaryAcknowledgmentsReferencesCritical Thinking and/or Argumentation in Higher EducationIntroductionCritical thinkingArgumentationCritical thinking and argumentationA disposition to be criticalLecturers' disposition to celebrate the criticalKnowledge of key theories and models of argumentationAwareness of the way argument manifests itself in different disciplinesDrilling down at the point of disputeThe development of argument skills during a degreeConclusionReferencesA Curriculum for Critical BeingOnly connectStudents as personsPurifying purityFor critical personsKeep it simpleLevels of a critical educationThe domains of critical beingConclusionReferencesWillingness to Inquire: The Cardinal Critical Thinking VirtueCritical thinking skillsCritical thinking virtuesWillingness to inquireA response to one detractorConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesII Teaching Critical ThinkingTeaching Critical Thinking: An Operational FrameworkThe need for conceptual clarityProcess adoptedConceptualizing an operational frameworkSkills and critical thinkingDisposition and critical thinkingKnowledge and critical thinkingApplying theory to practiceSupporting critical thinking performanceConclusionReferencesTeaching Critical Thinking for Lifelong LearningThe problem identifiedWhy is it difficult to improve critical thinking skills?Three potential solutionsLifelong learning and motivationLifelong learning and metacognitionConclusionReferencesTeaching Critical Thinking as InquiryCritique of conventional critical thinking coursesCritique of conventional disciplinary teachingTeaching critical thinking as inquiryTeaching inquiry in separate coursesCapital punishmentWhat is the issue?What kinds of claims or judgments are at issue?What are the relevant reasons and arguments on various sides of the issue?What is the context of the issue?Inquiries in specific areasIntegrating inquiry into subject area instructionWhat is the issue?What kinds of claims or judgments are at issue?What are the relevant reasons and arguments on various sides of the issue?What is the context of the issue?Fostering inquiry across the disciplinesConclusionReferencesDebate's Relationship to Critical ThinkingCritical thinking as cultureUnderstanding debatingWhat debating looks likeToward critical thinking as cultureDebating as the pedagogy of critical thinking cultureConclusionReferencesThick Critical Thinking: Toward a New Classroom PedagogyThe traditional modes of teaching critical thinkingFoundations of thick critical thinkingThick critical thinking in the classroomConclusionReferencesA Disciplined Approach to Critical ThinkingPhysicsHistoryEconomicsLawMedicineDiscussionReferencesUsing Argument Mapping to Improve Critical Thinking SkillsArgument mappingUsing AM in CT instructionDoes it work?Empirical research on impact of AM instructionTaking a meta-analytic approachFuture directionsWhy does it work?What dimensions of CT are being enhanced?How much CT gain can be generated?What would it take to achieve gains of this order?ReferencesIII Incorporating Critical Thinking in the CurriculumThe Relationship between Self-Regulation, Personal Epistemology, and Becoming a “Critical Thinker": Implications for PedagogyWhat it means to be a critical thinkerThe role of goals and beliefs in becoming a critical thinkerSelf-regulation in the context of becoming a critical thinkerEnvironmental impacts on becoming a self-regulated critical thinkerImplications for critical thinking pedagogy in higher educationGoals and beliefsOpportunityCompetenceConclusionReferencesUsing Argument Diagramming to Teach Critical Thinking in a First-Year Writing CourseThe importance of critical thinking skillsTeaching critical thinking skillsTwo models for argument analysisToulminBeardsley-FreemanUsing Toulmin's method of argument analysis in writing coursesUsing the CMU argument diagramming modelEffectiveness of the CMU argument diagramming methodConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesVirtue and Inquiry: Bridging the Transfer GapIntroductionVirtuous inquiryThe standard critical thinking course, the virtues, and the problem of transferHow might one teach in order to develop the motivational and regulatory virtues?Conclusion: The critical thinking teacher as coachReferencesProposition Testing: A Strategy to Develop Critical Thinking for Essay WritingEssays and critical thinkingLearner conceptions, assessment activities, and learning outcomesBackground to this studyStudent conceptions of critical thinking and essay writing revealed in this studyConceptions of critical thinkingConceptions of an essayConnections between conceptions of critical thinking and understanding of essaysThe new assessment processDetermining the effectiveness of the new assessment processPassCreditDistinctionHigh distinctionDiscussionConclusionReferencesConditions for Criticality in Doctoral Education: A Creative ConcernWhy creativity matters in critical thinkingFraming the educational conditions for criticality The notion of criticalityEducational conditions through the lens of Hannah ArendtCriticality in labor: a questioning approachCriticality in work: an expressive approachCriticality in political action: a relational approachGrasping the conditions and thresholds for criticality in doctoral educationConditions for criticalityThresholds for criticalityA call for strengthening the individual and creative voiceReferencesThe Effectiveness of Instruction in Critical ThinkingMeasuring instructional effectivenessEffectiveness of computer-assisted instruction in critical thinkingComparative effectiveness of different methodsSummaryReferencesIV Critical Thinking and CultureDo Students from Different Cultures Think Differently about Critical and Other Thinking Skills?The need for critical thinkingWhat students think about thinking skillsDo cultural differences impact student thinking?Investigating student perceptions about thinking skillsHow we conducted our studyOur results: students' thoughts on thinking skillsWhat do instructors expect?What characteristics do good thinkers possess?When might such skills not be applicable?How can we improve our thinking skills?What does critical thinking mean?Similarities and differences between the groups: some implicationsKnowledge and expectations about critical thinking: some implicationsWhere to from here?ReferencesCritical Thinking through a Multicultural Lens: Cultural Challenges of Teaching Critical ThinkingIntroduction: critical thinking in non-Western culturesNorth American critical thinkingCritical thinking in Islam and in Egypt Critical thinking as “Ijtihad" (Islamic scholarship)Critical thinking in EgyptContextual considerations in promoting critical thinkingCultural capitalPedagogical considerationsLinguistic considerationsCombined capability: influence of the sociopolitical environmentA practical exampleConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesCultural Variance, Critical Thinking, and Indigenous Knowledges: Exploring a Both-Ways ApproachCritical thinking skills: defining the contextCritical thinking in a “both ways" contextCritical thinking in an Indigenous higher education instituteConclusionReferencesCritical Thinking Education with Chinese CharacteristicsCritical thinking education development in ChinaTwo types of problems with developing critical thinking education: Chinese characteristicsWhat is the root of the resistance?Impediments from the uncritical tradition and the modern materialistic societyStrategy to promote the future development of critical thinking educationAcknowledgmentsReferencesV Critical Thinking and the Cognitive SciencesMetacognitive Education: Going beyond Critical ThinkingThe case for metacognitionMeta-conceptionsGeneral knowledge about cognitionMeta self-knowledgeSelf-regulationConclusion and further discussionReferencesApplying Cognitive Science to Critical Thinking among Higher Education StudentsCognitive science and the generalist/specifist debateFallacies, biases, and heuristicsWays of overcoming faulty thinkingHalpern's model for developing critical thinkingComponents of Halpern's modelApplying Halpern's model to practiceCognitive science, critical thinking, and higher educationConclusionReferencesMetacognition and Critical Thinking: Some Pedagogical ImperativesMetacognitionMetacognition and critical thinkingThe metacognitive experiencePedagogical imperativesCritical thinkersConclusionReferencesVI Critical Thinking and the ProfessionsCritical Thinking in Professional Accounting Practice: Conceptions of Employers and PractitionersDefining critical thinking—an academic exercise?Critical thinking—by various other namesCritical thinking—as conceptualized and verbalized by practicing accountantsVoices of employers and expert practitioners Voices of employersThe voice of a senior accountantThe voice of a senior auditorVoices of new graduates in practiceCritical thinking in accounting—a view from the insideHow can critical thinking skills be fostered?AcknowledgmentsReferencesCritical Thinking for Future Practice: Learning to QuestionFraming critical thinking in critical theoryUnderpinned by a philosophical stanceInformed by a pedagogical approachCases of critical thinking at universityProcedural critical thinkingAppreciative critical thinkingDivergent critical thinkingEvidence-based critical thinkingImplications of critical thinking for future practiceQuestioning practiceQuestioning cultureQuestioning identityConclusionReferencesCriticality in Osteopathic Medicine: Exploring the Relationship between Critical Thinking and Clinical ReasoningOsteopathyCritical thinkingHistorical development—parallels between critical thinking and clinical reasoningCriticality in clinical practiceThe relationship between critical thinking and clinical reasoningPractice knowledge and practice modelsClinical reasoning in osteopathic medicineImplications for educating future osteopathsConclusionReferencesMaking Critical Thinking Visible in Undergraduates' Experiences of Scientific ResearchWhat do we mean by critical thinking?The importance of contextGrasping opportunities to develop critical thinkingDesigning a way to make the invisible visibleCritical thinking, made visibleDeveloping a framework for recognizing and describing different forms of critical thinkingCritical thinking involving judgment and creativityCritical thinking and confidenceImplications for future research and practiceReferencesUsing Social Media to Enhance Critical Thinking: Crossing Socio-Educational DividesDefining terms: critical thinking and social mediaSocial media and critical thinking: an odd couple?Case studies: using social media to promote critical thinkingSynthesizing multiple perspectives in music in online discussionsUsing online presence to encourage critical reflection in creative writingRevising and rewriting: science knowledge building and critique on the NetConclusion: exploiting social media for critical thinkingAcknowledgmentsReferencesVII Social Perspectives on Critical ThinkingSpeaking Truth to Power: Teaching Critical Thinking in the Critical Theory TraditionThe critical theory tradition of critical thinkingWhat does a classroom informed by critical theory explore?MilitarismCapitalismWhite supremacyPatriarchyHeterosexismAbleismHow do teachers model criticality for students?Conclusion: further research into integrating analytical and critical traditionsReferencesStumbling over the First Hurdle? Exploring Notions of Critical CitizenshipContextualizing critical citizenship educationEducation and notions of critical citizenship in South AfricaCritical Citizenship Research ProjectMethodologyResults and discussionContested notions of citizenshipThe responsibility to address social problems in higher education institutionsImplications and conclusionsReferencesCritical Pedagogy: Critical Thinking as a Social PracticeTheorizing criticality—a historical perspectiveCritical thinking and critical pedagogyOn speaking and remaining silentConcluding thoughts: criticality in the neoliberal worldReferencesThe Knowledge Practices of Critical ThinkingSeeing knowledge practicesLegitimation Code Theory and semantic gravityA “critical reflection" essay in social workCritical incidentExcavationTransformationA “reflective journal" in business studiesExcavationReflectionTransformationConclusionReferencesCritical Thinking for Educated CitizenshipTeaching critical thinkingCommunity of learners as a way of enhancing critical thinkingCommunity of learners as a way of enhancing critical citizenshipConclusionReferences
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