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A short course of lectures
«The handy weather answer book»

What have been the deadliest tornadoes on record in the United States?What is a multiple-vortex tornado?What is plasma?How many people died as a result of the subsequent failure of the levees and flooding after Hurricane Katrina struck?How do you convert inches of mercury to millibars?Why do flash floods kill so many people?Why is Earth's magnetic field important to life on Earth?How destructive was the Blizzard of 1996?What is wind?What is the hottest place in the United States?What is meant by a trace of precipitation?Which ocean currents are the slowest?What have been the deadliest tropical storms since 1900 in the world? What is the purpose of a snow fence?What is the National Flood Insurance Program?How do radars use the Doppler effect to measure the weather?What is a Campbell-Stokes recorder?What was the weather like in China in 2008?What are the different types of satellites used today?What is the difference between absolute and specific humidity?HUMANITY AND THE WEATHERCOSMIC RAYSHow far does the solar wind travel?Can tides influence weather?What places experience the most annual precipitation on Earth?How hot is lightning?What was the world's worst nuclear disaster?Is there weather outside the solar system?What is the azimuth?Where does it snow on the equator?What is a geomagnetic storm?What is a state climatologist?What is the mission of NASA's Aura satellite?What is weather modification?Does air pressure change as elevation rises above sea level?What is a concentric eye wall?What is the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)?THE SEASONS What has the National Climatic Data Center reported about average temperatures in 2008?FORECASTING What are some of the lowest temperatures ever recorded?What are near-Earth objects and are they dangerous?How strong is Earth's magnetic field?MEASURING TEMPERATURE What do butterflies have to do with chaos theory?Do rainbows ever appear by moonlight?What are some of the coldest temperatures measured in Florida?How do some animals appear to be able to predict an oncoming storm?What is the difference between a cyclone and a typhoon?What was the Dust Bowl and what impact did it have on the United States?Are there ways I can anticipate a tornado?At any one time, how many thunderstorms are occurring?What is a wall cloud?Do other objects in the solar system have Van Allen belts?What is a digital barometer?Who were the first people to successfully forecast a tornado?What methods do farmers use to protect crops from frost and sudden freezes?RAIN, ICE, AND GEOGRAPHY What is "The Doctor"?What does a 40 percent chance of rain really mean?What is the effect of global warming and climate change on average temperatures?How large can hailstones become?What months are the most likely times for tornadoes?Does rain come in any other colors or is it always clear?What replaced the WSR-57s?What is a hectopascal?What is an aneroid barometer?What is syzygy?What is the global average temperature?Where can I find reliable climate statistics online?How many active volcanoes are there?What is precession?What are the two major characteristics of volcanic eruptions?What are some other unexpected places where it has snowed in the United States?What is fire weather forecasting?Are the gases in the atmosphere evenly distributed?What is a hydrometer?What is the coldest city in America's lower 48 states?When does the green flash phenomenon occur?What is a landspout?What is the Kelvin temperature scale?METEORS, METEORITES, ASTEROIDS, AND COMETSHow unhealthy is snow shoveling?What did Benjamin Franklin contribute to the science of meteorology?Why is the thermosphere so hot?What are dust devils?What is Dalton's Law?What is a diurnal temperature range?Is our climate changing?Can weather be predicted from the stripes on a wooly-bear caterpillar?What is the most dangerous month for avalanches?Do hailstones have rings?What is an ENSO-neutral year?What are tornadoes?Is the hole in the ozone layer causing frog species extinctions?What is El Niño?Who first theorized that human activities were causing climate change?Who are storm chasers?What are evaporation and transpiration?What is a Profiler?How much pollution is generated by airplanes?HUMANITY'S IMPACT THE MAGNETIC FIELD What is a heavy snow warning?What are lee troughs and lee depressions?Does Alaska get hotter than Hawaii?What is a radiosonde?What is a superior mirage?What is climatology?Why is there an ozone hole at the South Pole but there isn't one at the North Pole?Is it possible to forecast space weather?Does lightning ever strike twice in the same place?What is frostbite?What are solstices and when do they occur?Why is it impossible to find a pot of gold at the end of a rainbow?Is global warming causing an increase in severe hurricanes?What should you do if you are stranded in your car during a blizzard?When do the seasons start and end?What places have the lowest annual precipitation on Earth?Is carbon dioxide the most harmful global warming gas?Are there other terms for describing clouds?How much carbon dioxide is being produced by cars and industrial emissions in the United States?WIND STORMS How much does the entire atmosphere weigh?About how many tornadoes are recorded in the United States annually?What is a barometer?How can I measure how much rain falls where I live?What is the shape of a raindrop?HUMIDITYWhat is more dangerous, a big tornado with a funnel spanning over a mile in diameter, or a narrow, speedy tornado?Where can I get an education in meteorology?How do tides work?What is an anticyclone?When does frost form?What is long range transport?What is the difference between normal rain pH and acid rain pH?What was the Great Exhibition of 1851?Who helped link CFCs to the destruction of the ozone layer?Can you see a tornado using Doppler radar?What is airglow?Where is the best place to hide from a tornado if I'm outdoors?What is a gustnado?THE ATMOSPHEREWhat is the Fujiwhara effect?How much sunlight is reflected by snow?Why is it important to understand geography in relation to the weather?What is a pyranometer?What are some record snowfalls over a 24-hour period in the United States?Where do haboobs occur?Is there a difference between a forecast of partly sunny or partly cloudy skies?What is eutrophication?What are tides?What is lightning?What was the first organized network of meteorological observatories?What is the difference between perihelion and aphelion?What are Sun dogs and Moon dogs?What is a harmattan?CLOUDSHow were cosmic rays shown to be charged particles?What military battle was cancelled because of a mirage?How many people die in the United States because of avalanches?What are waterspouts?What is a tropical depression?Is static electricity similar to lightning?How hot can the human body get and still survive?What are halcyon days?How much air pollution does the United States produce?Who introduced use of the millibar to measure air pressure?If I stand next to a tall object, will I be safe from lightning?What is wind shear?Are all funnel clouds tornadoes?What is the solar spectrum?How have dams affected the planet's water cycle in a significant way?Is Chicago really the "windy city?"What is meteorology?How much do meteorologists earn?What is agricultural forecasting?What years have been El Niño years versus La Niña years since 1950?Who first described the phenomenon of acid rain?What is the Maunder Minimum?Who wrote the Meteorológica?Has there ever been a tornado in Los Angeles?How many layers does the Earth's atmosphere contain?What is the Intertropical Convergence Zone?What U.S. cities receive the most sunlight annually?What have been the costliest hurricanes in the United States?How much of the Sun's energy is radiated back into space by the Earth?What is an isobar?What is a hurricane?Do any other objects in the solar system have magnetic fields that flip upside down?What is acid fog?What is a heat wave?What is the Milankovic Cycle?Where does the word "tornado" come from?What is a low high temperature and a high low temperature?OCEAN CURRENTS Who came up with the idea for volunteer weather observers?What is a meteorite?Does Earth's magnetic field ever change?Is a polar low like an Arctic hurricane?What is a steam devil?What is a person's circadian rhythm?What makes the Historia Naturalis important in the history of meteorology?Why is there a hole in the ozone layer?What is an aerosol?How does the hydrologic cycle work?Are there certain times of the day when tornadoes are more likely to happen?What is Arctic sea smoke?What are the two forms of cloud-to-ground lightning?What is the Enhanced Fujita Scale?How does El Niño occur?When adding antifreeze to a car, should you gauge the amount based on expected low temperatures or expected low wind chills?What is a temperature inversion?AIR POLLUTIONWhat is the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)?What was the "Storm that Wouldn't Die"?What is the Ring of Fire?Where do meteors and meteorites come from?THUNDER AND THUNDERSTORMSHow dangerous are heat waves to people?Does air pollution reach as far as the North Pole?How much have disasters cost in recent years to the United States in terms of money and deaths?What is the National Weather Center (NWC)?What is orbital inclination?What is the record for the greatest snowfall in the United States?How did lightning cost New York City a billion dollars?What does the American Meteorological Society (AMS) do?Who managed to calculate cosmic ray activity on Earth dating back over 11,000 years?When did modern weather forecasting begin?What is the Wolf Number?Does lightning give off X-rays and radio waves?What are the four major cloud groups and their types?What are monsoons?Is Earth's atmosphere changing?What is tephra?What are the fastest currents in the world's oceans?What is an Alberta clipper?What place holds the record for the least amount of rain on Earth?Is the best time to see an aurora during the winter?Is it true that no two snowflakes are exactly the same shape?How much water evaporates from the world's oceans?What are pollution hot spots?MEASUREMENTS How often do ocean tides occur on Earth?How far can a dust storm travel?Where is the rainiest place on Earth?SUNSPOTS AND SOLAR ACTIVITYWhat is a sluff?How did the last Ice Age begin and end?What are the sources of air pollution?Where was the most snowfall ever recorded?What are VOCs?Who created the first anti-air pollution law in Western history?What are some of the coldest temperatures ever recorded in the United States?Hey, wait a minute, weren't scientists warning us of an impending ice age back in the 1970s?THE OZONE LAYER What are the "dog days" of summer?How did Earth's atmosphere form?What is a cloud?TERMS TO KNOWWhat is oceanography?What is lidar?Who showed that air pressure decreases as altitude increases?What is the moist tongue?What is the difference between a hurricane watch and a warning?What is the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC)?What is the Kyoto Protocol?What are the stages of a thunderstorm?Who is considered one of the most important pioneers in the study of climate change?What is a solar flare?What are the different types of lightning?VOLCANOESHow much pressure does the atmosphere exert upon us?What is sea-level air pressure?How much land disappears when the sea level rises?How much volcanic activity occurs underwater?Has it ever snowed in Arizona?What is seafloor spreading?What other countries also have weather satellites in orbit?What is sulfur dioxide?What is light pollution?What is a willy-willy?What is the Coriolis effect?Who hires meteorologists?What role did Walter Maurice Elsasser play in discovering the magnetic field?Can people's moods be affected by sunlight?What is the sunburn index?What was the 2008 hurricane season like?What is a bolide?What is weather?What happened when Mt. St. Helens erupted?Can the ozone hole be healed?What is industrial forecasting?What is paleoclimatology?What is NOAA Weather Radio?What is graupel?THE MOONWho was the first person to classify clouds?What is a banjo barometer?If a parhelion is a Sun dog, what is an anthelion?What could happen if permafrost melts permanently because of global warming?What was the air quality like in nineteenth-century London?When did radar finally catch on, and who gets the credit?Is there actual salt in sea air?What caused a temporary but dramatic change in climate in 1816 called the Year without a Summer?Why is air pollution in China such a huge problem?How does lightning work?What is atmospheric physics?What is a mirage?What is drizzle?Why do more people die in cold waves in the American South than they do in the North?Does wind have a lot of energy that could help reduce the need for fossil fuels?What is a crepuscular ray?What is the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale?What is the dew point?Can meteorologists predict tornadoes?Is global warming causing deserts to expand?What were the fastest winds ever recorded?How is the wind chill calculated?Does the North Pole have the same average temperatures as the South Pole?How does the Gulf Stream affect the weather of the British Isles and Scandinavia?How warm can the weather be and yet have snowfall?What causes deep ocean currents to flow around the world?Will water supplies be threatened by global warming?How much pollen is in our air?Where do cosmic rays come from?Is carbon dioxide pollution a problem?What caused the Bhopal disaster?What are cooperative weather observers?What is a katabatic wind?Is it a good idea to open windows and doors so that air pressure is equalized inside a house?What can I do to help relieve frostbite?How is a storm chaser different from a storm spotter?How loud is thunder?How much drinkable freshwater is there on Earth?What is the "120 Club"?What is Tornado Alley?What happened at Three Mile Island?How should one prepare when the weather forecast calls for the season's first freeze?How bad was the Blizzard of 1888?Who should be credited with inventing weather radar?What is the greenhouse effect?What are some other named winds and where are they located?What are atmospheric teleconnections?What important power source doesn't cause global warming?Who created the first artificial snowflake?What is a blue Sun?How is a corona different from a halo?What is a Chinook?What is a rope tornado?Why do meteorologists refer to the Reynolds number when talking about turbulence?How did abrupt climate changes in the past come to be called Dansgaard-Oeschger events?How much carbon monoxide is produced in the United States by cars?What country can claim to have the worst weather?What is a flash flood?Who developed the Beaufort Scale?Why does my nose run when I'm cold?How does the magnetosphere help animal behavior on Earth?Can weather actually make pollution worse?EARLY WEATHER HISTORY Do we have any evidence of global warming in the past?What is radon?What month is known for the most extreme changes in temperature?What gases and chemicals are considered to have the greatest effect on global warming?What are some cloud-to-space forms of lightning that are not considered to be true lightning?How far away can thunder be heard?What is the ozone layer?How hot can it get on the Earth's surface?What happens to the Sun every 22 years?How is a wet bulb thermometer constructed?Are wind farms a good way to solve the energy crisis and global warming?What are the National Ambient Air Quality Standards?What are TSPs?How do hurricanes get named?What will happen when Earth's magnetic field flips upside down?What is air?Why do people live in floodplains?How does the motion of Earth around the Sun cause the seasons to occur?What happened in the 1940s and 1950s that gave hope to the science of numerical weather prediction?What will the names of hurricanes be through 2013?What causes turbulence?Can the form of snowflake crystals be predicted?What are supercooled droplets?What is a neutrino?Is the greenhouse effect a good thing for life on Earth, or bad for the environment?Who first discovered sunspots?What is the most dangerous U.S. state to live in due to tornadoes?Which continents have the highest and lowest average elevations on the planet?Do tornadoes always turn counterclockwise?What was the first satellite used for monitoring the weather?What is a thunderstorm?LIGHTNINGWhat kinds of courses should I take at the university level?What is an asteroid?What is Earth's magnetic field?What is hypothermia?What are trade winds?What is marine forecasting?What are the different specialties within or related to meteorology?From where do comets originate?How high up does the atmosphere reach?How do factory farms contribute to air pollution?What has recent sunspot activity been doing?What are the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)?How did people discover that Earth has a magnetic field?What is the difference between climate and weather?How is the time set for the beginning of sunrise and sunset?What is a nuclear winter?How often does an aurora appear?What is a "white-out"?Is global warming irreversible?What is bioclimatology?Why don't we see hurricanes in the South Atlantic Ocean?How is the troposphere defined?What is an Ekman spiral?What is the Fujita and Pearson Tornado Scale?How thick is Earth's atmosphere?What is a hook echo?Do wind farms affect the weather?What is the "60 Below Club"?Do large-scale weather patterns lead to season trends?What is numerical weather prediction?What causes thunder?Is air pollution destroying our architectural history?What is a barograph?How long a path do tornadoes typically make?How is hail formed?Besides rime frost, what other types of frost are there?CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATIONWEATHER IN SPACEHow fast do the strongest hurricane winds blow?Who first discussed the link between climate change and how gases in the atmosphere absorb heat?Has there ever been an F6 tornado?VAN ALLEN BELTS What are Northers?What should I do in the event of a flood?What is the mesosphere?If neutrinos are so elusive, how do scientists observe them striking Earth?What is the speed of sound?Is the relative humidity always 100 percent during times when it is raining or snowing?Do other scientists believe we may be heading for an ice age?How wide is a lightning bolt?What hurricane names have been retired?Do ocean currents affect coastal weather?Do tornadoes strike in countries other than the United States and Canada?What are the westerlies?What are the requirements for a storm to be considered a severe thunderstorm?Why don't lakes and ponds freeze solid in the winter?Have the Great Lakes ever been completely frozen over?Are tornadoes often formed in hurricanes?What are the most polluted cities in the world in terms of air quality?What is the low-level jet stream?What is acid rain?What was the Great Flood of 1993?Who first formed the theory about the greenhouse effect?Do oceans get more rain than land?What was the Perfect Storm?What is the difference between absolute humidity and relative humidity?Are some people allergic to the Sun?What chemicals are used in thermometers?What is air pollution?What is the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)?Does irrigation of farmland affect the climate?Has lightning ever happened during a snow storm?What does it mean when we say something is on the lee side of the wind?What is the order of the colors in a rainbow?What are cooling degree days and heating degree days and what do they have to do with air conditioning?Are there different categories of rainfall?What is the ICESat mission?What are the major surface and subsurface currents in the oceans?What is emergency response planning?Is the Earth's rotation slowing down?How many F5 tornadoes have there been in the United States since 1970?What are noctilucent clouds?What major energy source is considered to be the cleanest?What is irisation?What is the worst avalanche disaster on record?How was the ozone hole discovered?What is the Air Quality Index?What are equinoxes and when do they happen?What is Saint Elmo's fire?Does the Earth's tilt ever change?What are some natural sources of air pollution?What are some other terms using the prefix "iso-" that meteorologists use?SATELLITESRAINBOWS AND OTHER COLORFUL PHENOMENAHow much water is there on Earth?What is a blue moon?How much does air pollution damage crops in the United States?What is evapotranspiration?What is the difference between a frost and a hard freeze?MODERN METEOROLOGYWhat is a beaver tail?What is a meteor shower?Is there a sunspot cycle?How much carbon dioxide am I producing when I drive my car or truck?Who first proposed the approach of numerical weather prediction?What countries are threatened the most from rising sea levels, and may cease to exist in the twenty-first century?How many category 5 hurricanes have there been since 1920?Who was named the United States's first official meteorologist?What are some disturbing statistics regarding air pollution in Egypt?What is a front?What is a rainbow?Why are trees and other vegetation important to the weather and climate?What is the Storm of the Century?What was Hurricane Katrina?What is the origin of the word "monsoon"?What is chionophobia?Where is lightning most likely to occur?What is the lowest temperature possible?Do other planets in our solar system experience weather?What are chilblains?What is the purpose of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)?Does lightning come from ice?Who was Paul A. Siple and how is he associated with the concept of the wind chill factor?What are the Van Allen belts?What is a photochemical grid model?Why are there so many discrepancies in the world records of weather?Did volcanoes play a role in creating Earth's atmosphere?WATER POLLUTIONWho invented the device to measure humidity?What is nuclear winter?Do all scientists agree that global warming is caused by human beings?LAYERS OF THE ATMOSPHEREWhat is anemophobia?How do I find financial aid to study meteorology?Who discovered how rainbows form?What are microclimates?When were the phenomenon of trade winds first explained, and by whom?What's the difference between dew point, humidity, and relative humidity?What is the largest known meteorite to strike Earth in the past 100,000 years?Why does lightning flicker?When did maps displaying cold and warm fronts first get published in the United States?Are we losing our atmosphere?Who was the first person to seriously study tornadoes?Where are aurorae seen?How is snowfall measured?Why do you sometimes see double rainbows?What is a 100-year flood?How big do sunspots get?CLIMATE CHANGEWhat is the VORTEX project?What is hydrology?What are the hazards of dust storms?How much water is in the world's oceans?Why is it wetter on one side of a mountain range?What are keraunophobia and brontophobia?What are glaze and rime?NEUTRINOSWhat are nacreous clouds?What is a fulgurite?What else does too much Sun do to one's skin?When are you most likely to see sprites and blue jets?GEOGRAPHY, OCEANOGRAPHY, AND WEATHERIs there a difference between The Farmer's Almanac and The Old Farmer's Almanac?What is the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)?What is odor pollution?What is an urban ice slab?Is meteorology considered a good career?What is a mauka breeze?What is the difference between the ecliptic plane and Earth's equatorial plane?Can a lightning stroke cause you to burst into flames?How is Earth's atmosphere important to life on Earth?Who first hypothesized that the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere had something to do with climate change?Do lakes have tides?What are ombrophobia and homichiophobia?What is the arctic oscillation?What is a meteorologist?How much energy does one bolt of lightning contain?ICE AGESWhat are the Santa Ana winds?Is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) involved in weather forecasting?What major gases do volcanoes emit?What is the difference between the Aurora Borealis and the Aurora Australis?COLDDoes the Sun have an atmosphere?What is one strange warning sign that lightning may be about to strike?What kind of cloud has been mistaken for a UFO?What is a meteor?What do some people fear will occur in December 2012?Why does the Earth's orbit change from circular to elliptical over time?What is a sunspot?What is convergence?What causes avalanches?What is an ionospheric storm?What factors affect the weather?Has Doppler radar made tornado forecasting better?What is the eye of a hurricane?Is air really "thin"?What is a brown cloud?What is Indian summer?Why do environmental firms hire meteorologists?Why did the United States refuse to sign the Kyoto Protocol?What were the glacial and interglacial periods in the last Ice Age?What is inversion?I heard that some glaciers in Alaska are growing, not shrinking. Is this true?Is it ever too cold to snow?What petition have thousands of scientists signed that says that global warming is not caused by people?What do meteorologists mean when they talk about POP?How long is a lightning strokeWhat did the continents look like in the past?How fast do hurricanes travel?What is POES?How much rain does it take to make a flood?TORNADOES How are different types of climates classified?Are falling meteors and meteorites dangerous?What is a bear's cage?Can you see the aurorae during the day?When do thunderstorms occur?Who first correctly wrote about the structure of snowflakes?Can smaller asteroids and comets affect the weather?Who first discovered cosmic rays?What is refraction?Where are the neutrinos coming from?What is Doppler radar?What are the chances that I will be struck by lightning?What are some notable record hail accumulations?Is there a classification system for snowflakes?How hard is it to become a meteorologist who is a radio or television broadcaster?What is a London killer fog?Who invented the dew point hygrometer?What was the deadliest tornado ever in the world?How clean is rain water?What is the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL)?What is sodar?Who first photographed a sprite?When did the first weather map appear in a newspaper?What are some other unusual events that saw a sudden increase in temperature in the United States?How do you calculate how far away a lightning bolt is?What is smog?How was the jet stream discovered?How much time does it take for sunlight to reach the Earth?What is a wedge tornado?How is sea water salinity measured?What is a rain shadow?OCEANOGRAPHY AND WEATHER How do meteorologists come up with percentages predicting the weather?What causes a tornado to dissipate?What did Sir Isaac Newton contribute to the science of meteorology?What is a cloud chamber?What is an ombrometer?CLIMATE BASICSWhat is the thermocline?How is the ionosphere important in the transmission of radio waves?What are spiral bands?What two volcanic eruptions had the biggest impacts on the climate in the twentieth century?What is a mackerel sky?What is virga?How is wind speed measured?What is the National Hurricane Center?What happens to domesticated animals during blizzards?Does all precipitation reach the ground?Is there a connection between global warming and geology?When was the first official storm warning issued in the United States?What are thermographs and hygrothermographs?What is the heat index?What is the National Weather Service (NWS)?Can you use snow to keep you warm?Is a halo around the Sun or Moon a sign of rain or snow approaching?What physical evidence shows that the continents move?What is indoor humidity?Who discovered the ozone layer?What is a Certified Consulting Meteorologist (CCM)?How does a lightning rod work?What are some of the most unusually hot temperatures experienced in the United States?What is Buys Ballot's Law?PLATE TECTONICSWhat are some of the highest temperatures recorded?What caused all the flooding in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina?What is latent heat?What is the Bruckner cycle?What is an aurora?ORGANIZATIONSWhat is global warming?Is it true that being hit by lightning can have health benefits?Who figured out that temperatures rise in the stratosphere?What is the largest known meteorite to strike Earth in the past 100 million years?How many people are killed in the United States by lightning?How did Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko calculate the temperature of Earth's climate?What remarkable observation did science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke make?What is a tropical storm?How much pollution is caused by smoking tobacco?What are the different scales of atmospheric motion?How bright is lightning?How is asthma related to air pollution levels?What is a coronal mass ejection?What is a Nor'Easter?AIR AND AIR PRESSUREWhat is a thermoscope and who invented it?Can volcanic eruptions affect the global climate?What are growlers?What is the difference between a tornado watch and a warning?Who first theorized that there was a link between volcanoes and climate?Do people frequently die from lightning strokes?Which country produces the most greenhouse gas?AcknowledgmentsWhat is an urban heat island?What is the difference between freezing rain, sleet, and hail?At what temperature does sea water freeze?What is the Doppler effect?What are the consequences in the United States when there is an unusually cool summer?How big can a raindrop get?What was the most important weather book to follow Meteorologica?How was seafloor spreading discovered?How far is it possible to see through the atmosphere?What is atmospheric chemistry?What is a heat burst?What is the windiest place on Earth?Does all carbon dioxide released as pollution remain in the atmosphere?What type of pyranometer does the National Weather Service use?What is clear ice?How many people will find themselves in flooded coastal regions should global warming melt the ice caps?What is heat exhaustion?How was the existence of neutrinos proven?What is the snow line?Have hailstones ever proven to be deadly?What should I do when a tornado approaches?What is the Bergeron-Findeisen mechanism?What is the jet stream?PRECIPITATION WEATHER FUNDAMENTALSWhat is a dry front?What is continentality?How do ocean currents affect weather?What is barometric pressure and what does it mean?Can the relative humidity ever be higher than 100 percent?What is the ecliptic plane?What is the current extent of deforestation?Is global warming causing the world's glaciers to melt?What is the most rainfall ever recorded within a one-day period?What did NASA and the U.S. military discover about triggered lightning?What part of a hurricane is most damaging?How was the Fahrenheit scale developed?What is an acre-foot?What is a Siberian express?Who else formed theories that ice ages occur in cycles?How much ice is there covering Antarctica and Greenland?What is the Table Cloth cloud?So, what is the modern theory of plate tectonics?What do the colors shown on television radars indicate?What is the average annual number of deaths in the United States caused by tornadoes?What newspaper was the first to begin publishing daily weather forecasts?Can I get a cold from being out in cold weather?What are some other significant air pollutants?What were the major glacial ice ages over time?What is Gay-Lussac's Law and why is it important in meteorology?What is a Rossby wave?How warm can it get in Antarctica?What are the cloudiest U.S. cities?Which of America's founding fathers were fascinated by meteorology?What was the "Great Hurricane of 1938"?How were the first high altitude photographs of clouds taken?How did the KALPANA-1 get its name?What city in the United States holds the record for a dry spell?Wasn't 2008 one of the coolest years for the United States?What is a mare's tail?What are Aitken nuclei?How strong does a tornado have to be to be considered "significant"?What changes in plant and bird behavior are indicating global warming?Why have cyclones striking out of the Indian Ocean proven to be so deadly?What is the effect of a microburst on aircraft?Does it have to be raining for there to be lightning?What, then, is hydrometeorology?What was the "Little Ice Age"?What are the horse latitudes?What are the most extreme barometer readings ever measured?Which Chinese scholar first hypothesized about climate change?What is a smog alert?What causes ice ages?How tall can thunderstorm clouds be?What is Universal Coordinated Time?What is a fumarole?What is the driest place on Earth?How did Charles Fabry discover that the ozone absorbs ultraviolet light?What is a mesocyclone?Does water always freeze at 32°F (0°C)?What is the Landsat Program?Who invented the barometer?What are coronas and anticoronas?How do meteorologists predict weather using changes in air pressure?Who was Cleveland Abbe?What is the tropopause?What are the consequences when glaciers melt?Am I safe from lightning if I hide indoors?How is wind direction usually measured?What measurements do weather satellites provide us?What types of psychrometers are there?What is lake effect snow?What place has the most rainy days every year?How much water is contained in snow?What was Hermann Flohn's contribution to climatology?Why is the Sun essential for weather?Is there such a thing as a megacryometeor?Does the Sun emit a constant amount of energy?How are supercooled droplets used for the purpose of cloud seeding?How do I know if meteorology is for me?What is the difference between snow and hail?What is a Pulse-Doppler radar?ICE, SNOW, HAIL, AND FROST GENERAL POLLUTION FACTS How is dry ice seeding used to increase visibility at airports?What is solar wind?RADARAre there any circumstances where air pollution could be beneficial?Does dew fall?What is a blizzard?Are there trees that predict the weather and tell time?What causes a tornado?Why was Hero of Alexandria an important figure in the history of meteorology?Do meteorologists actually have reliable data on tornado wind speeds?CAREERS IN METEOROLOGY What are the 10 snowiest cities in the United States?ATMOSPHERE BASICS Has there always been an ozone layer?What is the ideal relative humidity that is the most comfortable for people?HEATHow can a solar eclipse influence the weather?Why is the sunniest place on Earth also the coldest?What are some of the worst summers in terms of heat-related deaths that have occurred in the United States?What have been some of the most destructive floods in history?What is diffraction?Is there such a thing as a monochromatic rainbow?Can a hurricane be stopped?How many volts are in lightning?What is diamond dust?What is the Clean Air Act?Are hailstones always round?What is the Storm Prediction Center (SPC)?What is a triple point?How can I obtain a flood map of my community?What is the average temperature of the world's oceans?What U.S. drought has been the costliest in terms of financial damages?What is a storm surge?How fast does the seafloor spread?How can a gardener preserve unripe tomatoes before a winter frost?How do sunspots affect weather?What are the "hail belts"?Where is the horizon?What is a bishop's ring?Can lightning travel through the ground?HURRICANES, MONSOONS, AND TROPICAL STORMSWhy is Greenland called green when it is mostly covered in ice?What is the evidence supporting global warming?How were the Van Allen belts discovered?What is humidity?What are some of the erratic behaviors of tornadoes?What are major and minor ice age periods?Do turtles and frogs have antifreeze in their blood?What is a solar prominence?Are there other types of tornado-like whirlwinds?What is convection?What U.S. cities tend to get the most hail?What is heat stroke?Besides the 1974 tornado outbreak, what are some other serious outbreaks that have hit the United States?HEAT AND COLDTo what professional societies and organizations should a meteorologist belong?What is carbon monoxide?What would happen if a large comet or asteroid impact occurred?What are black smokers?Who contributed to early work in plate tectonics?What standard unit of measurement is used to indicate wind speed?What did the Greeks once speculate about the air?Who invented the modern thermometer?What is a derecho?How do airplanes create clouds?WINDWhat are some other effects of ultraviolet radiation?Why is infrared light from the Sun important?What is a Sun pillar?What is an ice age?ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENAWhat are some benefits of lightning?What is a hygrometer?Which is more deadly: tornadoes or lightning ?Has the weather ever been responsible for killing a U.S. president?Who was Alexander Buchan?What is La Niña?What are you seeing when you "see your breath"?How does the wind chill factor affect temperature?What is transportation forecasting?What methods have been used to try to remove hazardous fog?What U.S. cities have been wiped out by hurricanes?How big is the hole in the ozone?Where does it rain the most in the United States?How is Mie scattering different from Rayleigh scattering?Where is the most humid place on Earth?How do I convert Fahrenheit to Celsius or Kelvin?What are the wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures?Have neutrinos ever been shown to have hit Earth from somewhere other than the Sun?Who initially proposed the idea of moving continents?Are there other ways that thunderstorms can be described?How have weather-related forest fires created tragic disasters in the United States?THE SUN What did the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently say about power plant emissions?Was the 2005 New Orleans disaster caused by a flood or a hurricane?Which month is the most dangerous for tornadoes in the United States?What is the difference between subvortices and satellite tornadoes?What is radar?How does air flow around low and high pressure systems?What are some other types of anemometers?How do meteorologists classify thunderstorms?How was Abu 'Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham important to meteorology?What is albedo?Is there much permafrost in the lower 48 U.S. states?How fast does the solar wind travel?Has a hurricane ever made landfall in southern California?What is a comet?How is rainfall measured?What is a January thaw?What are cosmic rays?Does drinking alcohol truly warm up a person's body?What is the difference between a National Weather Service advisory, statement, watch, and warning?How is pollution related to weather?Has an asteroid ever hit Earth?Why is the sky blue?BLIZZARDS AND AVALANCHES Does lightning only occur during thunderstorms?How many times does lightning strike the Earth each year?What Mie scattering?STORMY WEATHERGLOBAL WARMINGWhat is the solar spectrum?Does global warming increase the incidence of diseases?What is an "air pocket"?What are the types of snowflakes as identified in the International Classification System?Why do clouds float?How does snow form?What are some of the worst floods in history caused by inclement weather?What is an "indoor thunderstorm"?What mineral were scientists surprised to see in high quantities in the stratosphere?What is a contrail?What is dew?How much of the Earth is usually covered by clouds?Does it rain in the Arabian Desert?FLOODSWhat causes a flood?What is an ice storm?What is an ion?What ancient Chinese book first discussed the idea of solar winds?At what point does the sky turn from blue to black?What is aviation forecasting?How much energy can a hurricane produce?Who first proposed the idea of ice ages?Has there ever been a hurricane in Great Britain?Has the Hudson River ever frozen over?How fast does lightning travel?What is inadvertent weather modification?If ozone is good for us, why do we hear about ozone alerts and "bad ozone"?What is a phreatic eruption?How much of the Earth was covered in ice during the various ice ages?What is a floodplain?What are some other sunspot minimums and maximums?What are the different size categories for hailstones?What are ocean currents?RADIATIONHow does the United States compare with China and Russia on energy use and production?What is the difference between a lunar eclipse and a solar eclipse?Why was the name of the Centigrade scale changed to Celsius?What are some other katabatic winds called?What is permafrost?We haven't had a nuclear war (yet), so what sources are creating radiation pollution?What is a GOES?Will there be an ice age in the future?What key event brought the issue of acid rain to prominence?
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