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A short course of lectures
«The handy weather answer book»

How have dams affected the planet's water cycle in a significant way?What is a tropical depression?What has the National Climatic Data Center reported about average temperatures in 2008?What is a solar flare?Is it true that no two snowflakes are exactly the same shape?How hard is it to become a meteorologist who is a radio or television broadcaster?What are some of the most unusually hot temperatures experienced in the United States?How far does the solar wind travel?What is radar?How much pollen is in our air?WEATHER IN SPACEHUMANITY'S IMPACT Who was the first person to seriously study tornadoes?What is a meteor shower?What is bioclimatology?How strong does a tornado have to be to be considered "significant"?What is a heat burst?Why do meteorologists refer to the Reynolds number when talking about turbulence?Can weather actually make pollution worse?Does all precipitation reach the ground?What is the Kelvin temperature scale?What is a Rossby wave?What Mie scattering?Why are there so many discrepancies in the world records of weather?What are the hazards of dust storms?What is a banjo barometer?What is POES?What are some other terms using the prefix "iso-" that meteorologists use?Where are aurorae seen?What do the colors shown on television radars indicate?What are VOCs?How much rain does it take to make a flood?Why is there an ozone hole at the South Pole but there isn't one at the North Pole?What is a mackerel sky?What is a sunspot?Why do you sometimes see double rainbows?What is an ion?What are some cloud-to-space forms of lightning that are not considered to be true lightning?What are some record snowfalls over a 24-hour period in the United States?How fast do hurricanes travel?What are Aitken nuclei?What is lake effect snow?What is the average temperature of the world's oceans?Is meteorology considered a good career?What is a low high temperature and a high low temperature?What is a barograph?Who first theorized that there was a link between volcanoes and climate?What is an ENSO-neutral year?How does the Gulf Stream affect the weather of the British Isles and Scandinavia?Do tornadoes strike in countries other than the United States and Canada?Has the Hudson River ever frozen over?THE OZONE LAYER How wide is a lightning bolt?What does a 40 percent chance of rain really mean?CLIMATE BASICSHow dangerous are heat waves to people?What is odor pollution?What is acid fog?What is a mesocyclone?Hey, wait a minute, weren't scientists warning us of an impending ice age back in the 1970s?What is inversion?How is rainfall measured?Are there other ways that thunderstorms can be described?What is Indian summer?What U.S. cities tend to get the most hail?Where does it rain the most in the United States?What are the requirements for a storm to be considered a severe thunderstorm?RAINBOWS AND OTHER COLORFUL PHENOMENAWhat are the Santa Ana winds?What is hypothermia?ATMOSPHERE BASICS How much of the Earth was covered in ice during the various ice ages?THE SEASONS What is one strange warning sign that lightning may be about to strike?What causes avalanches?What happens to domesticated animals during blizzards?BLIZZARDS AND AVALANCHES What U.S. drought has been the costliest in terms of financial damages?Are all funnel clouds tornadoes?What is a GOES?What is a hydrometer?What causes ice ages?What is the Wolf Number?What is an acre-foot?What is a gustnado?What causes a tornado to dissipate?Is a polar low like an Arctic hurricane?What is atmospheric chemistry?What is the solar spectrum?Will water supplies be threatened by global warming?EARLY WEATHER HISTORY How big do sunspots get?What is a tropical storm?Is our climate changing?Can lightning travel through the ground?What is an aneroid barometer?What is a state climatologist?What is the azimuth?What was the Dust Bowl and what impact did it have on the United States?What is diffraction?How fast does the solar wind travel?What have been some of the most destructive floods in history?THUNDER AND THUNDERSTORMSWhat was the first satellite used for monitoring the weather?Does lightning give off X-rays and radio waves?Is there a difference between The Farmer's Almanac and The Old Farmer's Almanac?TERMS TO KNOWWhat is the Intertropical Convergence Zone?What are the cloudiest U.S. cities?How is the ionosphere important in the transmission of radio waves?How much carbon dioxide am I producing when I drive my car or truck?About how many tornadoes are recorded in the United States annually?What is orbital inclination?Does dew fall?What is a storm surge?How do hurricanes get named?What are the 10 snowiest cities in the United States?What is a comet?What is the ozone layer?How is pollution related to weather?How many people are killed in the United States by lightning?When did the first weather map appear in a newspaper?How often do ocean tides occur on Earth?Why is the Sun essential for weather?What is the mesosphere?How much pressure does the atmosphere exert upon us?What is the purpose of a snow fence?What are the chances that I will be struck by lightning?How did the KALPANA-1 get its name?What is irisation?OCEANOGRAPHY AND WEATHER Does Alaska get hotter than Hawaii?How many people die in the United States because of avalanches?How much does the entire atmosphere weigh?Where are the neutrinos coming from?What is a photochemical grid model?What kind of cloud has been mistaken for a UFO?How much land disappears when the sea level rises?Are the gases in the atmosphere evenly distributed?What is barometric pressure and what does it mean?Why is Earth's magnetic field important to life on Earth?What makes the Historia Naturalis important in the history of meteorology?What is fire weather forecasting?What is the Coriolis effect?Who was Cleveland Abbe?What are the most extreme barometer readings ever measured?What was the Great Flood of 1993?Who were the first people to successfully forecast a tornado?What is Universal Coordinated Time?What places have the lowest annual precipitation on Earth?Who was Alexander Buchan?RADIATIONWhat is a wall cloud?What is paleoclimatology?What country can claim to have the worst weather?How is a storm chaser different from a storm spotter?What is a sluff?What is the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)?Do turtles and frogs have antifreeze in their blood?What are lee troughs and lee depressions?What is the difference between perihelion and aphelion?What is "The Doctor"?How was the jet stream discovered?What is weather?Who wrote the Meteorológica?What is aviation forecasting?At any one time, how many thunderstorms are occurring?What are the Van Allen belts?What is the low-level jet stream?Why have cyclones striking out of the Indian Ocean proven to be so deadly?What is a pyranometer?What is a bolide?How can a gardener preserve unripe tomatoes before a winter frost?What is the National Flood Insurance Program?What major gases do volcanoes emit?Does the Sun emit a constant amount of energy?Does air pressure change as elevation rises above sea level?Does the Earth's tilt ever change?How are supercooled droplets used for the purpose of cloud seeding?What is an Alberta clipper?What is eutrophication?How do I know if meteorology is for me?Who first photographed a sprite?How much water is contained in snow?How can I obtain a flood map of my community?Is global warming irreversible?Who helped link CFCs to the destruction of the ozone layer?How is the troposphere defined?What are ombrophobia and homichiophobia?Do ocean currents affect coastal weather?AIR AND AIR PRESSUREWhat is smog?What did the continents look like in the past?What are the types of snowflakes as identified in the International Classification System?THE MAGNETIC FIELD Why does my nose run when I'm cold?What were the fastest winds ever recorded?What did Benjamin Franklin contribute to the science of meteorology?When are you most likely to see sprites and blue jets?What are the major surface and subsurface currents in the oceans?Can I get a cold from being out in cold weather?Does rain come in any other colors or is it always clear?What are some other katabatic winds called?What is the Doppler effect?What are some other named winds and where are they located?Do hailstones have rings?What is the sunburn index?What is a January thaw?Does water always freeze at 32°F (0°C)?What are some of the worst floods in history caused by inclement weather?What were the glacial and interglacial periods in the last Ice Age?What is marine forecasting?When were the phenomenon of trade winds first explained, and by whom?What causes a tornado?What causes deep ocean currents to flow around the world?What is nuclear winter?How was seafloor spreading discovered?Do we have any evidence of global warming in the past?What is a triple point?Is air really "thin"?Do any other objects in the solar system have magnetic fields that flip upside down?What U.S. cities receive the most sunlight annually?I heard that some glaciers in Alaska are growing, not shrinking. Is this true?What is a flash flood?What were the major glacial ice ages over time?What is carbon monoxide?What is the worst avalanche disaster on record?What is a crepuscular ray?How do I convert Fahrenheit to Celsius or Kelvin?What is a phreatic eruption?What hurricane names have been retired?Why is Greenland called green when it is mostly covered in ice?How was the existence of neutrinos proven?What is convection?What is an anticyclone?Where is the horizon?What is Saint Elmo's fire?What are the consequences in the United States when there is an unusually cool summer?What role did Walter Maurice Elsasser play in discovering the magnetic field?What is a derecho?What do some people fear will occur in December 2012?What is a Profiler?PRECIPITATION What is the difference between freezing rain, sleet, and hail?What is heat exhaustion?Can meteorologists predict tornadoes?What is a steam devil?What is air?What are supercooled droplets?What is an "indoor thunderstorm"?Which month is the most dangerous for tornadoes in the United States?How high up does the atmosphere reach?What replaced the WSR-57s?What is the purpose of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)?What caused all the flooding in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina?How does El Niño occur?Do other scientists believe we may be heading for an ice age?Does it rain in the Arabian Desert?Who created the first anti-air pollution law in Western history?How is the time set for the beginning of sunrise and sunset?Which is more deadly: tornadoes or lightning ?What are halcyon days?What is the Milankovic Cycle?What methods do farmers use to protect crops from frost and sudden freezes?What is El Niño?What did NASA and the U.S. military discover about triggered lightning?Does the Sun have an atmosphere?How did Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko calculate the temperature of Earth's climate?What could happen if permafrost melts permanently because of global warming?What are the different specialties within or related to meteorology?Do wind farms affect the weather?What is the VORTEX project?What is a temperature inversion?What is a thermoscope and who invented it?Why was Hero of Alexandria an important figure in the history of meteorology?What two volcanic eruptions had the biggest impacts on the climate in the twentieth century?What was the most important weather book to follow Meteorologica?How can I measure how much rain falls where I live?What is the greenhouse effect?Will there be an ice age in the future?What is the mission of NASA's Aura satellite?What are equinoxes and when do they happen?What are cooling degree days and heating degree days and what do they have to do with air conditioning?Who developed the Beaufort Scale?How is dry ice seeding used to increase visibility at airports?How does snow form?When does the green flash phenomenon occur?What U.S. cities have been wiped out by hurricanes?Is it true that being hit by lightning can have health benefits?How does the hydrologic cycle work?What is the difference between a frost and a hard freeze?THE MOONWhat is the ideal relative humidity that is the most comfortable for people?Who first formed the theory about the greenhouse effect?What are tides?How did people discover that Earth has a magnetic field?Is there such a thing as a megacryometeor?How destructive was the Blizzard of 1996?Are there other types of tornado-like whirlwinds?Where do cosmic rays come from?What is Buys Ballot's Law?How do ocean currents affect weather?What is albedo?What are the National Ambient Air Quality Standards?What are microclimates?How have weather-related forest fires created tragic disasters in the United States?We haven't had a nuclear war (yet), so what sources are creating radiation pollution?Is global warming causing the world's glaciers to melt?What is a geomagnetic storm?Are hailstones always round?Who discovered how rainbows form?Who else formed theories that ice ages occur in cycles?When was the first official storm warning issued in the United States?FORECASTING What is atmospheric physics?Can you use snow to keep you warm?What is graupel?What is the "120 Club"?Why does the Earth's orbit change from circular to elliptical over time?MEASUREMENTS What is acid rain?What military battle was cancelled because of a mirage?Is global warming causing an increase in severe hurricanes?What is NOAA Weather Radio?What is the average annual number of deaths in the United States caused by tornadoes?When do the seasons start and end?How do I find financial aid to study meteorology?Are there any circumstances where air pollution could be beneficial?Does air pollution reach as far as the North Pole?METEORS, METEORITES, ASTEROIDS, AND COMETSHow much does air pollution damage crops in the United States?What is Doppler radar?What have been the deadliest tropical storms since 1900 in the world? What is the Air Quality Index?CLOUDSCOLDCan you see a tornado using Doppler radar?What is the Storm Prediction Center (SPC)?When did radar finally catch on, and who gets the credit?How is a corona different from a halo?LAYERS OF THE ATMOSPHEREHow much air pollution does the United States produce?What are some other sunspot minimums and maximums?What is a superior mirage?How many people died as a result of the subsequent failure of the levees and flooding after Hurricane Katrina struck?Has there ever been a tornado in Los Angeles?How much energy can a hurricane produce?What did Sir Isaac Newton contribute to the science of meteorology?How hot can it get on the Earth's surface?What happened when Mt. St. Helens erupted?What is the largest known meteorite to strike Earth in the past 100 million years?What is an ionospheric storm?What countries are threatened the most from rising sea levels, and may cease to exist in the twenty-first century?Are there ways I can anticipate a tornado?What is a coronal mass ejection?Are there certain times of the day when tornadoes are more likely to happen?WIND STORMS What is anemophobia?What is light pollution?What is the Ring of Fire?What is the difference between absolute and specific humidity?Do large-scale weather patterns lead to season trends?Does it have to be raining for there to be lightning?Where does the word "tornado" come from?Who showed that air pressure decreases as altitude increases?Can volcanic eruptions affect the global climate?What is the Fujita and Pearson Tornado Scale?Who first hypothesized that the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere had something to do with climate change?What is a thunderstorm?Who first theorized that human activities were causing climate change?What is a smog alert?ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENAWhat should I do in the event of a flood?Is carbon dioxide pollution a problem?What standard unit of measurement is used to indicate wind speed?What was the first organized network of meteorological observatories?What is an Ekman spiral?What's the difference between dew point, humidity, and relative humidity?Why is it wetter on one side of a mountain range?How much time does it take for sunlight to reach the Earth?What is a Sun pillar?Is static electricity similar to lightning?What do butterflies have to do with chaos theory?Does the North Pole have the same average temperatures as the South Pole?What are some of the worst summers in terms of heat-related deaths that have occurred in the United States?What is air pollution?What measurements do weather satellites provide us?SUNSPOTS AND SOLAR ACTIVITYIs it possible to forecast space weather?Are some people allergic to the Sun?What is solar wind?What is the difference between snow and hail?What is a landspout?What are the different types of lightning?What is a meteorologist?If I stand next to a tall object, will I be safe from lightning?What is lidar?What are some of the coldest temperatures ever recorded in the United States?Is there a difference between a forecast of partly sunny or partly cloudy skies?What type of pyranometer does the National Weather Service use?Who was the first person to classify clouds?What is hydrology?If ozone is good for us, why do we hear about ozone alerts and "bad ozone"?What is the origin of the word "monsoon"?How is Mie scattering different from Rayleigh scattering?What happened at Three Mile Island?What is long range transport?What is the "60 Below Club"?What are major and minor ice age periods?What is a mare's tail?How hot can the human body get and still survive?How many times does lightning strike the Earth each year?Who was named the United States's first official meteorologist?What are atmospheric teleconnections?Have neutrinos ever been shown to have hit Earth from somewhere other than the Sun?Is Earth's atmosphere changing?Who are storm chasers?Is the best time to see an aurora during the winter?What are growlers?What causes a flood?What have been the costliest hurricanes in the United States?What is a harmattan?How much drinkable freshwater is there on Earth?What are glaze and rime?What is emergency response planning?GLOBAL WARMINGCan weather be predicted from the stripes on a wooly-bear caterpillar?What is an aurora?How does lightning work?How much water evaporates from the world's oceans?Is air pollution destroying our architectural history?What city in the United States holds the record for a dry spell?What are some other effects of ultraviolet radiation?What is the National Weather Service (NWS)?Who first discussed the link between climate change and how gases in the atmosphere absorb heat?How does a lightning rod work?Has an asteroid ever hit Earth?What newspaper was the first to begin publishing daily weather forecasts?What is a rainbow?AIR POLLUTIONWhat are some of the highest temperatures recorded?Do rainbows ever appear by moonlight?What is the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)?What is the most dangerous U.S. state to live in due to tornadoes?What are some notable record hail accumulations?How much carbon dioxide is being produced by cars and industrial emissions in the United States?What is a dry front?What has recent sunspot activity been doing?CLIMATE CHANGEWhat is the solar spectrum?What is an "air pocket"?Where is lightning most likely to occur?Is there such a thing as a monochromatic rainbow?What does it mean when we say something is on the lee side of the wind?Who discovered the ozone layer?Who invented the modern thermometer?What are tornadoes?What places experience the most annual precipitation on Earth?How should one prepare when the weather forecast calls for the season's first freeze?What are ocean currents?How much carbon monoxide is produced in the United States by cars?Who was Paul A. Siple and how is he associated with the concept of the wind chill factor?What are the two forms of cloud-to-ground lightning?How does the motion of Earth around the Sun cause the seasons to occur?Has it ever snowed in Arizona?Am I safe from lightning if I hide indoors?Why is the sky blue?What is sulfur dioxide?Can the relative humidity ever be higher than 100 percent?What is the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale?What is a heat wave?What is the Storm of the Century?LIGHTNINGWhat is a Campbell-Stokes recorder?What major energy source is considered to be the cleanest?What is a heavy snow warning?How far away can thunder be heard?What are the wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures?What is the Bruckner cycle?How tall can thunderstorm clouds be?How big is the hole in the ozone?So, what is the modern theory of plate tectonics?What is a rain shadow?How far can a dust storm travel?What is wind shear?What is permafrost?How many F5 tornadoes have there been in the United States since 1970?What is a neutrino?What is the hottest place in the United States?Can smaller asteroids and comets affect the weather?What is the most rainfall ever recorded within a one-day period?How thick is Earth's atmosphere?Does lightning only occur during thunderstorms?Are there other terms for describing clouds?Do other planets in our solar system experience weather?What is a nuclear winter?How do meteorologists come up with percentages predicting the weather?What is a mirage?What is precession?What is the National Hurricane Center?Is global warming causing deserts to expand?MODERN METEOROLOGYWhat is the windiest place on Earth?Is the relative humidity always 100 percent during times when it is raining or snowing?What was the 2008 hurricane season like?WEATHER FUNDAMENTALSWhat is a meteorite?What is the thermocline?What is an urban heat island?What is a contrail?What is the coldest city in America's lower 48 states?What was the deadliest tornado ever in the world?Does Earth's magnetic field ever change?What is a diurnal temperature range?Does drinking alcohol truly warm up a person's body?What is diamond dust?How do sunspots affect weather?VOLCANOESWhat are waterspouts?Why is the thermosphere so hot?What is the Kyoto Protocol?How did the last Ice Age begin and end?When did modern weather forecasting begin?What is the difference between absolute humidity and relative humidity?At what point does the sky turn from blue to black?Why don't lakes and ponds freeze solid in the winter?Do oceans get more rain than land?What are some natural sources of air pollution?What is the difference between the Aurora Borealis and the Aurora Australis?What is the lowest temperature possible?What are some of the coldest temperatures measured in Florida?What else does too much Sun do to one's skin?What is a bishop's ring?What are thermographs and hygrothermographs?What are some of the lowest temperatures ever recorded?How was the ozone hole discovered?Besides the 1974 tornado outbreak, what are some other serious outbreaks that have hit the United States?Is there a connection between global warming and geology?Is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) involved in weather forecasting?What is Dalton's Law?What are black smokers?What are some other types of anemometers?What is a cloud?When do thunderstorms occur?What is the moist tongue?What is a front?Why don't we see hurricanes in the South Atlantic Ocean?What is a 100-year flood?What are trade winds?How many category 5 hurricanes have there been since 1920?At what temperature does sea water freeze?To what professional societies and organizations should a meteorologist belong?How strong is Earth's magnetic field?Can the form of snowflake crystals be predicted?Can people's moods be affected by sunlight?How do some animals appear to be able to predict an oncoming storm?What is the evidence supporting global warming?Where is the most humid place on Earth?What is the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL)?What is Arctic sea smoke?How do radars use the Doppler effect to measure the weather?What did the Greeks once speculate about the air?Can tides influence weather?How were the Van Allen belts discovered?What is latent heat?RADARWhat is sodar?What are monsoons?What is a floodplain?What is the order of the colors in a rainbow?What is a concentric eye wall?What are some of the erratic behaviors of tornadoes?What was the weather like in China in 2008?What is wind?What is the jet stream?Who invented the dew point hygrometer?What is a fulgurite?What is industrial forecasting?What is a radiosonde?Why does lightning flicker?What changes in plant and bird behavior are indicating global warming?What is the difference between climate and weather?What are the different types of satellites used today?What are the two major characteristics of volcanic eruptions?Has lightning ever happened during a snow storm?COSMIC RAYSWhat are you seeing when you "see your breath"?What is Tornado Alley?What is the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)?If a parhelion is a Sun dog, what is an anthelion?Are wind farms a good way to solve the energy crisis and global warming?What is transportation forecasting?What are some disturbing statistics regarding air pollution in Egypt?How large can hailstones become?Why do clouds float?Do tornadoes always turn counterclockwise?What ancient Chinese book first discussed the idea of solar winds?Which continents have the highest and lowest average elevations on the planet?WATER POLLUTIONWhich ocean currents are the slowest?What was the "Little Ice Age"?What is the shape of a raindrop?What is dew?Who first discovered cosmic rays?What types of psychrometers are there?Where do haboobs occur?What is a multiple-vortex tornado?What is meteorology?What is a katabatic wind?What are some other unusual events that saw a sudden increase in temperature in the United States?What is the ecliptic plane?How warm can it get in Antarctica?Who came up with the idea for volunteer weather observers?What is a bear's cage?What is the Enhanced Fujita Scale?What is inadvertent weather modification?What is seafloor spreading?How fast do the strongest hurricane winds blow?What is the difference between normal rain pH and acid rain pH?How much of the Sun's energy is radiated back into space by the Earth?Does all carbon dioxide released as pollution remain in the atmosphere?What is oceanography?Why do environmental firms hire meteorologists?Is it a good idea to open windows and doors so that air pressure is equalized inside a house?What place has the most rainy days every year?Does global warming increase the incidence of diseases?Has the weather ever been responsible for killing a U.S. president?How much pollution is generated by airplanes?When did maps displaying cold and warm fronts first get published in the United States?HUMIDITYHow do airplanes create clouds?What is an aerosol?What are solstices and when do they occur?What are some other significant air pollutants?What is meant by a trace of precipitation?What is a blue moon?What are the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)?Is there much permafrost in the lower 48 U.S. states?What are coronas and anticoronas?How often does an aurora appear?What years have been El Niño years versus La Niña years since 1950?What is a London killer fog?Has a hurricane ever made landfall in southern California?What is a hygrometer?How did lightning cost New York City a billion dollars?What is Earth's magnetic field?How is asthma related to air pollution levels?How do meteorologists predict weather using changes in air pressure?How does air flow around low and high pressure systems?What is the largest known meteorite to strike Earth in the past 100,000 years?What would happen if a large comet or asteroid impact occurred?HURRICANES, MONSOONS, AND TROPICAL STORMSHow clean is rain water?What is numerical weather prediction?What is the effect of global warming and climate change on average temperatures?How were cosmic rays shown to be charged particles?Who figured out that temperatures rise in the stratosphere?CAREERS IN METEOROLOGY Is the greenhouse effect a good thing for life on Earth, or bad for the environment?If neutrinos are so elusive, how do scientists observe them striking Earth?What is the ICESat mission?What gases and chemicals are considered to have the greatest effect on global warming?What is the most dangerous month for avalanches?Does lightning ever strike twice in the same place?What is Gay-Lussac's Law and why is it important in meteorology?How is snowfall measured?What is virga?How were the first high altitude photographs of clouds taken?Why is infrared light from the Sun important?How bad was the Blizzard of 1888?What are the most polluted cities in the world in terms of air quality?What is the global average temperature?What is a brown cloud?How warm can the weather be and yet have snowfall?TORNADOES HUMANITY AND THE WEATHERWhat is the speed of sound?What is a hurricane?How is sea water salinity measured?What have been the deadliest tornadoes on record in the United States?What did the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently say about power plant emissions?What is chionophobia?Do meteorologists actually have reliable data on tornado wind speeds?Why is there a hole in the ozone layer?What is an ombrometer?STORMY WEATHERVAN ALLEN BELTS Can the ozone hole be healed?What is plasma?What are the different size categories for hailstones?What methods have been used to try to remove hazardous fog?What is a Siberian express?Who first described the phenomenon of acid rain?What are some other unexpected places where it has snowed in the United States?Why do more people die in cold waves in the American South than they do in the North?What is convergence?Is there a classification system for snowflakes?What caused a temporary but dramatic change in climate in 1816 called the Year without a Summer?How fast does the seafloor spread?Is the hole in the ozone layer causing frog species extinctions?What is the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC)?Can a lightning stroke cause you to burst into flames?Where is the best place to hide from a tornado if I'm outdoors?What is clear ice?What important power source doesn't cause global warming?How was Abu 'Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham important to meteorology?What is an urban ice slab?What are the "dog days" of summer?What is tephra?What is the difference between a hurricane watch and a warning?What is refraction?How much do meteorologists earn?ICE AGESWhat other countries also have weather satellites in orbit?What was the "Great Hurricane of 1938"?Where does it snow on the equator?What is the snow line?What are the different scales of atmospheric motion?What is airglow?Have hailstones ever proven to be deadly?What is drizzle?What is La Niña?Is a halo around the Sun or Moon a sign of rain or snow approaching?What does the American Meteorological Society (AMS) do?Which country produces the most greenhouse gas?What remarkable observation did science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke make?How many people will find themselves in flooded coastal regions should global warming melt the ice caps?HEATWhat is a fumarole?What happened in the 1940s and 1950s that gave hope to the science of numerical weather prediction?What should you do if you are stranded in your car during a blizzard?What is the difference between a cyclone and a typhoon?What are evaporation and transpiration?Are falling meteors and meteorites dangerous?What is a blizzard?Are tornadoes often formed in hurricanes?What is a Chinook?What is weather modification?What is the difference between the ecliptic plane and Earth's equatorial plane?What are nacreous clouds?What mineral were scientists surprised to see in high quantities in the stratosphere?Why are trees and other vegetation important to the weather and climate?What is a person's circadian rhythm?What caused the Bhopal disaster?What months are the most likely times for tornadoes?When does frost form?ORGANIZATIONSWhat is the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)?What are the stages of a thunderstorm?How did abrupt climate changes in the past come to be called Dansgaard-Oeschger events?HEAT AND COLDAre there different categories of rainfall?What is a blue Sun?Why is it impossible to find a pot of gold at the end of a rainbow?Has Doppler radar made tornado forecasting better?How loud is thunder?What is a beaver tail?Which Chinese scholar first hypothesized about climate change?What kinds of courses should I take at the university level?How is a wet bulb thermometer constructed?Which of America's founding fathers were fascinated by meteorology?Who first discovered sunspots?How is wind speed measured?What is the dew point?What is humidity?How far is it possible to see through the atmosphere?What part of a hurricane is most damaging?Do lakes have tides?What are the westerlies?What are Northers?How unhealthy is snow shoveling?What is more dangerous, a big tornado with a funnel spanning over a mile in diameter, or a narrow, speedy tornado?Is Chicago really the "windy city?"What is the record for the greatest snowfall in the United States?Who hires meteorologists?What is an ice age?What are Sun dogs and Moon dogs?What are TSPs?Did volcanoes play a role in creating Earth's atmosphere?What is the Table Cloth cloud?What is the National Weather Center (NWC)?What is the Fujiwhara effect?What is the Clean Air Act?What is the tropopause?Are there trees that predict the weather and tell time?How much water is in the world's oceans?What are near-Earth objects and are they dangerous?Where can I find reliable climate statistics online?What was the air quality like in nineteenth-century London?What is a solar prominence?What is a mauka breeze?What are some benefits of lightning?What is agricultural forecasting?What is an asteroid?What will happen when Earth's magnetic field flips upside down?FLOODSWhere do meteors and meteorites come from?What are the consequences when glaciers melt?Does irrigation of farmland affect the climate?What is the difference between a tornado watch and a warning?What are the sources of air pollution?What was Hermann Flohn's contribution to climatology?How is wind direction usually measured?What are cooperative weather observers?Can you see the aurorae during the day?Who created the first artificial snowflake?THE SUN Who invented the device to measure humidity?What was the Great Exhibition of 1851?What is the heat index?Why is the sunniest place on Earth also the coldest?Who managed to calculate cosmic ray activity on Earth dating back over 11,000 years?How is hail formed?GEOGRAPHY, OCEANOGRAPHY, AND WEATHERWhy did the United States refuse to sign the Kyoto Protocol?How much volcanic activity occurs underwater?What is syzygy?Who first correctly wrote about the structure of snowflakes?What is a digital barometer?What are the four major cloud groups and their types?What is indoor humidity?What can I do to help relieve frostbite?What are the fastest currents in the world's oceans?How much pollution is caused by smoking tobacco?What is climatology?What are dust devils?Who introduced use of the millibar to measure air pressure?What is the Bergeron-Findeisen mechanism?How much of the Earth is usually covered by clouds?What is global warming?Who first proposed the idea of ice ages?What is the difference between a National Weather Service advisory, statement, watch, and warning?What is heat stroke?Who should be credited with inventing weather radar?What happens to the Sun every 22 years?How big can a raindrop get?What is the driest place on Earth?What is a rope tornado?Has there ever been an F6 tornado?What causes turbulence?What are cosmic rays?Is there actual salt in sea air?What causes thunder?How do meteorologists classify thunderstorms?Why is air pollution in China such a huge problem?Has there always been an ozone layer?How long is a lightning strokeWhat will the names of hurricanes be through 2013?Why is it important to understand geography in relation to the weather?What is a meteor?What is a wedge tornado?Where was the most snowfall ever recorded?What are chilblains?What do meteorologists mean when they talk about POP?Do other objects in the solar system have Van Allen belts?RAIN, ICE, AND GEOGRAPHY How does the wind chill factor affect temperature?How many active volcanoes are there?What is the difference between a lunar eclipse and a solar eclipse?What, then, is hydrometeorology?How many layers does the Earth's atmosphere contain?How do factory farms contribute to air pollution?What was Hurricane Katrina?Do all scientists agree that global warming is caused by human beings?What is frostbite?What is a Pulse-Doppler radar?Is there a sunspot cycle?What is a hectopascal?How much ice is there covering Antarctica and Greenland?How much have disasters cost in recent years to the United States in terms of money and deaths?What is lightning?What are the horse latitudes?What is the effect of a microburst on aircraft?What is the eye of a hurricane?What is an isobar?What was the Perfect Storm?What are spiral bands?How do tides work?What was the world's worst nuclear disaster?Have the Great Lakes ever been completely frozen over?How many volts are in lightning?What is an ice storm?What petition have thousands of scientists signed that says that global warming is not caused by people?Where can I get an education in meteorology?What key event brought the issue of acid rain to prominence?What is a barometer?Who is considered one of the most important pioneers in the study of climate change?How is the wind chill calculated?Does lightning come from ice?From where do comets originate?How long a path do tornadoes typically make?MEASURING TEMPERATURE PLATE TECTONICSHow was the Fahrenheit scale developed?How do you convert inches of mercury to millibars?Who invented the barometer?Do people frequently die from lightning strokes?What are the "hail belts"?How bright is lightning?Why do flash floods kill so many people?What chemicals are used in thermometers?What is a Certified Consulting Meteorologist (CCM)?Does wind have a lot of energy that could help reduce the need for fossil fuels?What is the Maunder Minimum?AcknowledgmentsWhat are noctilucent clouds?What is the difference between subvortices and satellite tornadoes?What is the arctic oscillation?SATELLITESHow hot is lightning?Is there weather outside the solar system?What factors affect the weather?What is the Landsat Program?Has there ever been a hurricane in Great Britain?What physical evidence shows that the continents move?What is continentality?What are keraunophobia and brontophobia?What is a hook echo?How much sunlight is reflected by snow?ICE, SNOW, HAIL, AND FROST What is a Nor'Easter?What is evapotranspiration?Is the Earth's rotation slowing down?What should I do when a tornado approaches?Who initially proposed the idea of moving continents?How does the magnetosphere help animal behavior on Earth?How much energy does one bolt of lightning contain?Are we losing our atmosphere?How did Charles Fabry discover that the ozone absorbs ultraviolet light?Why do people live in floodplains?Where is the rainiest place on Earth?Was the 2005 New Orleans disaster caused by a flood or a hurricane?How did Earth's atmosphere form?What is radon?When adding antifreeze to a car, should you gauge the amount based on expected low temperatures or expected low wind chills?What is the current extent of deforestation?What is sea-level air pressure?Wasn't 2008 one of the coolest years for the United States?What is a willy-willy?WINDHow is Earth's atmosphere important to life on Earth?What is a cloud chamber?Besides rime frost, what other types of frost are there?What are pollution hot spots?How are different types of climates classified?How do you calculate how far away a lightning bolt is?Is carbon dioxide the most harmful global warming gas?What month is known for the most extreme changes in temperature?How does the United States compare with China and Russia on energy use and production?What was the "Storm that Wouldn't Die"?CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATIONHow much water is there on Earth?OCEAN CURRENTS What place holds the record for the least amount of rain on Earth?Who first proposed the approach of numerical weather prediction?How fast does lightning travel?Who contributed to early work in plate tectonics?THE ATMOSPHEREGENERAL POLLUTION FACTS How can a solar eclipse influence the weather?Is it ever too cold to snow?Can a hurricane be stopped?Why was the name of the Centigrade scale changed to Celsius?What is a "white-out"?NEUTRINOS
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