# Optical Waves and Laser Beams in the Irregular Atmosphere

PrefaceAtmosphere FundamentalsStructure and Main Parameters of the AtmosphereThe Content of the AtmosphereAerosolsAerosol DimensionsAerosol Altitude LocalizationAerosol ConcentrationAerosol Size DistributionAerosol Spectral ExtinctionHydrometeorsFogRainCloudsSnowAtmospheric TurbulenceTurbulence Energy Cascade TheoryCharacteristic Functions and Parameters of Atmospheric TurbulenceSpectral Characteristics of Atmospheric TurbulenceNon-Kolmogorov TurbulenceReferencesBasic Aspects of Optical Wave PropagationIdentity of Optical and Radio WavesOptical Waves Propagation: Deterministic ApproachMain EquationsPropagation of Optical Waves in Free SpacePropagation of Optical Waves through the Boundary of Two MediaBoundary ConditionsMain Formulations of Reflection and Refraction CoefficientsOptical Wave Propagation in Random Media: Statistical ApproachMain Wave Equations and Random CharacteristicsWave EquationsRandom Functions and Their MomentsFourier Transform of Stationary Random FunctionsThe Cluster Expansion of the Centered Random Function and Its Fourier TransformRandom EquationsScalar Wave Equation PresentationMethod of Diagrams for Green FunctionAn Exact Solution of 1D EquationRandom Expansion at Short WavelengthsExact Solution of the Scalar Wave EquationThe Electromagnetic Wave EquationPropagation in Statistically Irregular MediaReferencesAtmospheric Turbulence in the Anisotropic Boundary LayerOverviewIntroduction in Semiempirical Theory of TurbulenceLocal Structure of TurbulenceSemiempirical Hypotheses of the Theory of Turbulence in the Anisotropic Boundary LayerMain Principles of the Semiempirical Theory of TurbulenceTheoretical Equations for Dissipation Rates of Kinetic Energy e and Temperature N in the Anisotropic Boundary LayerExperimental Studies of Semiempirical Hypotheses in the Anisotropic Boundary LayerMeasurement InstrumentationRequirements on the Duration of Observation SessionsCharacteristics of the Measurement PathGeneral Results of Measurement of Turbulence Characteristics in the Mountain Boundary LayerExperimental Verification of Local Weak Anisotropy of the Mountain Boundary Layer via the Anisotropy FunctionsEffective Isotropic LayerOuter Scale of Turbulence in the Anisotropic Boundary LayerFurther Development of the Semiempirical Theory of Turbulence in the Anisotropic Boundary LayerTurbulent Scales of the Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory in the Anisotropic Boundary LayerTurbulent Prandtl Number in the Anisotropic Boundary LayerMain ResultsCoherent Structures in the Turbulent AtmosphereBrief Review of the Studies of the Local Structure of TurbulenceIncipient Convective Turbulence: Benard CellsModels of Temperature Fluctuation Spectra in Incipient TurbulenceScenarios of Stochastization of Convective FlowsExtension of the "Coherent Structure" Concept: Actual TurbulenceCoherent Structures in Open AirCoherent and Incoherent TurbulenceTurbulent Characteristics in Coherent TurbulenceAttenuation of Amplitude and Phase Fluctuations of Optical Wave in Coherent TurbulenceProperties of Coherent StructuresProperties of Single-Coherent StructuresProperties of Mixtures of Different Coherent StructuresNumerical Solutions of Navier-Stokes Equations: Visualization of TurbulenceMain ResultsReferencesNonlinear Propagation of Laser Radiation in the AtmosphereGeneration of Stimulated Raman Scattering of Radiation in a Spherical MicroparticleBasic EquationsQuasistationary ApproximationThresholds of SRS GenerationSelf-Action of Laser Beams in the AtmosphereInfluence of Diffraction on the Stimulated Raman Scattering of Laser Radiation in the Middle AtmosphereBasic Equations of Forward SRS in the AtmosphereAnalysis of Atmospheric ConditionsTechnique of Numerical CalculationsDiscussionsEffective Radius of Beams under SRS ConditionsCascade Excitation of SRS ComponentsRegularities of Nonstationary Self-Focusing of Profiled Laser Beams: Averaged DescriptionEvolution Law of Effective Radius of the Optical BeamEffective Beam Radius at Nonstationary Self-FocusingEstimating Equations for the Averaged Parameters of Optical Beam at the Nonlinear FocusReferencesPeculiarities of Propagation of Ultrashort Laser Pulses and Their Use in Atmospheric SensingLidar Control in Problems of Atmospheric Sensing by Ultrashort PulsesEffect of Splitting of the Femtosecond Pulse in the Linear Transfer ModeTheoretical Prerequisites of the IssueMathematical Model of Transfer: Monte Carlo TechniqueResults of Model EstimationTransformation of Femtosecond Pulse in Plant Leaf VolumeThe Main Formulation of Local EstimationsConclusionsEstimation of the Efficiency of the Use of Promising White-Light Lidar for Sensing of Optical and Microphysical Parameters of Cloud AerosolOptical Equations of the Theory of Multiwavelength Laser SensingIterative Method for Solution of the System of Lidar EquationsSelection of Informative Wavelengths of Laser SensingAnalytical Methods for Inversion of the Integral EquationStatistical and Intellectual Methods for Solution of Inverse ProblemsMonte Carlo TechniqueGenetic AlgorithmMethod of Artificial Neural NetworksComparative Analysis of the Efficiency of theModification of Genetic AlgorithmNumerical Experiment on Sensing of Optical and Microphysical Parameters of Clouds Based on the Modified Genetic AlgorithmSummaryLidar Experiment on the Study of Microphysical Characteristics of Artificial Aerosol at Short PathsSolution of Inverse Problem with the Genetic AlgorithmDiscussionAssessment of Feasibility of Reconstructing Microphysical Characteristics of Mist with the Use of White-Light Lidars at Short PathsReferencesIsoplanarity Problem in Vision TheoryIntroduction to the ProblemAlgorithm for Statistical Simulation of Pulsed Reactions in Spherical GeometryCriteria for the Estimation of the Size of Image Isoplanarity ZonesExample of Reconstruction of the Image of Test ObjectReferences