Atmospheric Turbulence in the Anisotropic Boundary Layer
Physical properties of the turbulent atmosphere significantly affect the results of investigations in atmospheric optics. As was mentioned in Chapter 1, the correct knowledge of turbulent characteristics of the atmosphere is an important prerequisite for accurate prediction of propagation of short-wavelength (optical) radiation in the atmosphere.
This chapter presents the results of many years of experimental and theoretical investigations carried out by the author and his colleagues (see Bibliography at the end this chapter) to understand the main properties of atmospheric turbulence in the anisotropic boundary layer. The investigations were carried out in two directions.
First, we present investigations within the framework of the semiempirical theory of turbulence. This theory is statistical; it deals with statistical moments of turbulent fields.
Second, we throw light on the investigations of the local structure of turbulence, including issues of turbulence formation and evolution. These investigations make clear the mechanism of generation and existence of hydrodynamic turbulence, in which the role of stochasticity is significantly decreased. As will be seen from the results presented below, turbulence, which is usually considered as a purely stochastic phenomenon (chaos) in the international literature, is deterministic to a large extent.