Adjudication the official judgment of the trial court in a civil or a criminal case as to the defendant’s guilt or innocence

Administrative agencies authorities of the government other than the

executive, legislative, and judicial branches, created for the purpose of administering particular legislation; sometimes called commissions, bureaus, boards, authorities, offices, departments, administrations, and divisions

Legislature a collection of individuals who are elected as members of the formal parliamentary bodies prescribed by national and state constitutions

Voir dire the questioning ofjurors during the process of jury selection

Issues of fact matters concerning the reconstruction, description, and interpretation of events that are considered by a judge and/or jury during a trial

Issues of law matters concerning which interpretations of law are proper and acceptable, as decided by a judge during a trial


Don J. Lofgren, Dangerous Premises: An Insider's View of OSHA Enforcement. Ithaca,

NY: Cornell University, 1989. A discerning and revealing narrative of the author's experience as an OSHA investigator, written in nontechnical language.

Jerome H. Skolnick, Justice without Trial: Law Enforcement in Democratic Society. New York: Macmillan, 1994. A highly influential account, first published in 1966, of the tension policing creates in a democracy.

Malcolm K. Sparrow, Handcuffed: What Holds Policing Back, and the Keys to Reform

Hardcover. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2016. A provocative critique of policing today, along with proposals for improved policing.

Michael Tonry (ed.), Why Punish? How Much? A Reader on Punishment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. A compendium on some time and provocative aspects of punishment.

Michael Tonry and Norval Morris (eds.), Modern Policing. Chicago, IL: University of

Chicago Press, 1992. An outstanding classic collection of essays on the various facets of policing based on a good historical analysis.

Larry W. Yackle, Regulatory Rights: Supreme Court Activism, the Public Interest, and the Making of Constitutional Law. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2007. A good analysis of the U.S. Supreme Court's role in American life and law during the past several decades.

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