Applied science the search for ways of using scientific knowledge to solve practical problems

Experiment a research design that is normally carried out in a laboratory or a field setting, and that ideally begins with two or more equivalent groups, with an experimental variable introduced into only the experimental group

Historical research the critical investigation of events, developments, and experiences of the past; a careful weighing of evidence of the validity of sources of information on the past; and the interpretation of the evidence

Matched-pair technique regarding an experiment, for each person in the experimental group, another person similar in all important variables is found and placed in the control group

Observational methods research involving either human observers or mechanical observers that elicits information from subjects through observation and/or interviewing

Pure science a search for knowledge, without primary concern for its practical use

Random assignment regarding an experiment, the random assignment of subjects to experimental and control groups

Random sample a subset of a population for which every unit in the population has an equal chance of being selected

Secondary analysis research involving data that the researcher did not actually generate or collect herself or himself

Social policy purposive legal measures that are adopted and pursued by representatives of government who are responsible for dealing with particular social conditions in society

Survey research the systematic and comprehensive collection of information about the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of people, as gathered through face-to-face interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and telephone interviews

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