Blind justice the ideal that law should be impartial, and that the chances of achieving justice under law should not depend on someone’s race, ethnicity, wealth, or other nonlegal attributes

Implicit bias the idea that many people hold unconscious racial and ethnic stereotypes

Social stratification inequality in a society based on wealth, power, race and ethnicity, gender, and other attributes


Walter Frank, Law and the Gay Rights Story: The Long Search for Equal Justice in a

Divided Democracy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2014. An insightful summary of various court cases during the past few decades that helped establish certain gay rights.

Elizabeth Hinton, From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime: The Making of Mass Incarceration in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016.

An excellent history of the racial and other factors that helped produce mass incarceration in the United States.

John Pfaff, Locked In: The True Causes of Mass Incarceration and How to Achieve Real Reform. New York: Basic Books, 2017. A persuasive analysis of how changes in prosecutorial decision making helped to fill the nation's prisons and jails.

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