Which federal judges lost their jobs because of the Judiciary Act of 1802?
The Judiciary Act of 1802 abolished the new judgeships created by the Judiciary Act of 1801. The following judges lost their jobs: First Circuit: Benjamin Bourne and Jeremiah Smith; Second Circuit: Egbert Benson, Samuel Hitchcock, and Oliver Wolcott; Third Circuit: Richard Bassett, William Griffith, and William Tilghman; Fourth Circuit: Philip Barton Key, Charles Magill, and George Keith Taylor; Fifth Circuit: Joseph Clay, Dominic Augustin Hall, and Edward Harris; and Sixth Circuit: William McClung.
How many federal district courts and federal appeals courts are there?
The federal district courts are the trial courts in the federal system. There are 94 federal judicial districts in the United States. There are multiple judicial districts in most states, one in the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Marinara Islands. Federal district courts hear both civil and criminal cases before juries. Federal district courts also have separate bankruptcy courts. The vast majority of cases before a federal district court are held before a single judge.
The federal appeals courts are divided into 13 circuits—11 numbered circuits, the D.C. Circuit, and the Federal Circuit. Most cases at the federal appellate court level are heard by panels of three judges. The Circuit Courts are organized as follows:
1st Circuit federal cases from the states of Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Puerto Rico 2nd Circuit federal cases from the states of New York, Vermont, and Connecticut 3rd Circuit federal cases from the states of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware
4th Circuit federal cases from the states of Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia,
North Carolina, and South Carolina 5th Circuit federal cases from the states of Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi 6th Circuit federal cases from the states of Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, and Michigan
7th Circuit federal cases from the states of Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin
8th Circuit federal cases from the states of Arkansas, Iowa, Missouri, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska
9th Circuit federal cases from the states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington
10th Circuit federal cases from the states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Utah, and Wyoming
11th Circuit federal cases from the states of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida
When did Congress create the circuit courts in their present form?
Congress created the modern circuit court judgeships in the Judiciary Act of 1891, which created nine circuit courts composed of three judges each. In 1893, Congress created the D.C. Circuit. Then in 1929 Congress created the 10th Circuit. In 1980, Congress created the 11th Circuit by dividing the existing 5th Circuit into two parts. Two years later in 1982 Congress created the federal circuit, which hears specialized appeals in patent and civil personnel cases.
What was the Evarts Act?
Congress created nine circuit courts of appeals by the Judiciary Act of 1891, also called the Evarts Act, named after U.S. senator William Evarts of New York. These new circuit court of appeals featured three judges each. A court of appeals for the D.C. Circuit was added in 1893; a court of appeals for the 10th Circuit was added in 1929; and the 11th Circuit was added in 1980 by dividing the existing 5th Circuit into two parts. In 1982, the Court created the federal circuit, which hears specialized appeals in patent and civil personnel cases among others. The Evarts Act essentially established the basic model for the modern-day federal judicial system.