Who was the most famous federal appeals court judge to never make it to the U.S. Supreme Court?
Many experts consider Billings Learned Hand to be the greatest federal judge to never serve on the U.S. Supreme Court. Hand served on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit for many years from 1924 until 1961. Before that, Hand served as a federal district court judge from 1909 until 1924. The U.S. Supreme Court regularly cited his opinions. In fact, legal scholars and the Supreme Court have cited Learned Hand more than any other lower court judge in history. Hand served many years on the court with his first cousin, Augustus Noble Hand, a respected jurist in his own right.
What are some famous quotes by Learned Hand?
Hand on the freedom of speech: "In each case (courts) must ask whether the gravity of the evil, discounted by its improbability, justifies such invasion of free speech as is necessary to avoid the danger."
On incitement and freedom of speech: "To assimilate agitation, legitimate as such, with direct incitement to violent resistance, is to disregard the tolerance of all methods of political agitation which in normal times is a safeguard of free government."
On tort law and determining the duty of care: "Since there are occasions when every vessel will break from her moorings, and since, if she does, she becomes a menace to those about her; the owner's duty, as in other similar situations, to provide against resulting injuries is a function of three variables: (1) The probability that she will break away; (2) the gravity of the resulting injury, if she does; (3) the burden of adequate precautions. Possibly it serves to bring this notion into relief to state it in algebraic terms: if the probability be called P; the injury, L; and the burden, B; liability depends upon whether B is less than L multiplied by P: i.e., whether B < PL."
Hand's "Lessons of Liberty" speech in 1944:
Liberty lies in the hearts of men and women; when it dies there, no constitution, no law, no court can even do much to help it. While it lies there it needs no constitution, no law, no court to save it. And what is this liberty which must lie in the hearts of men and women? It is not the ruthless, the unbridled will; it is not freedom to do as one likes. That is the denial of liberty, and leads straight to its overthrow.
A society in which men recognize no check upon their freedom soon becomes a society where freedom is the possession of only a savage few; as we have learned to our sorrow. The spirit of liberty is the spirit which is not too sure that it is right; the spirit of liberty is the spirit which seeks to understand the mind of other men and women; the spirit of liberty is the spirit which weighs their interests alongside its own without bias; the spirit of liberty remembers that not even a sparrow falls to earth unheeded; the spirit of liberty is the spirit of Him who, near two thousand years ago, taught mankind that lesson it has never learned but never quite forgotten; that there may be a kingdom where the least shall be heard and considered side by side with the greatest.
Billings Learned Hand was considered one of the best judges to ever serve on a federal court bench, but he was never named a Supreme Court justice (Library of Congress).
How many different districts are there?
There are 94 different judicial districts in the United States and its territories. Many states have multiple federal judicial districts. For example, Tennessee has an Eastern, Middle and Western district. South Dakota only has one judicial district, though its one district has four divisions.
What Is the main difference between a federal district court and the other federal courts?
Federal district courts are trial courts, while the federal circuit courts and the U.S. Supreme Court are appellate courts. Federal district courts are headed by one judge, while the federal appellate courts hear cases before multiple judges or justices.