Experimentation on animal and human subjects has a long history in scientific and medical literature. It is essential for scientific progress and the promotion of medical well-being to use human subjects during experimentation. However, research risks are always there and unavoidable. Therefore, the use of human subjects in experimentation especially in health care generates ethical, legal, political, and humanistic concerns. Although in the literature, no severe health-related issues have been reported in noninvasive scalp EEG recordings, there are still many concerns that need to be considered in EEG experiments on human subjects.

Ethical Issues

The most important issue is the subject’s informed consent, i.e., whether the subjects are competent to decide on their participation. This is especially serious when children, patients, or disabled subjects are involved in studies. What should be included in the informed consent? Sometimes the information provided in the informed consent is not sufficient. The lack of knowledge of the subjects about the experiment may mislead them to be incompetent for the experiment.

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