Sample Size Computation

The sample size computation for this study was not predefined because it was a pilot study. Further research on this topic may be required to properly compute the sample size using the mean differences among the three groups in this study, which are reported in the published papers. Please see the published papers in Section 6.7 in this chapter.

Participant Recruitment

In this study, 40 volunteers were recruited who were healthy university students (30 males and 10 females) aged between 19 and 25 years old (21.55 ± 1.52). The participants had normal or corrected-to-normal vision and had no neurophysiological impairments. As part of the inclusion criteria for participant recruitment, all recruited participants reported that they had normal vision and no medical history existed, and all had past experience in 3D viewing. However, those who reported that they had experienced severe visual discomfort during 3D viewing in the past, such as motion sickness, headache, and nausea, were excluded from the study. The target population was the undergraduate and postgraduate students of Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP). All the participants were informed about the experimental procedures and they provided a written Participant Information and Consent Form (see Appendix 2C). The protocol of this study was approved by the UTP Ethics Coordination Committee.

Participants were randomly divided into two equal groups (either 3D Active First or 3D Passive First). All participants in this study had an experience in 3D viewing (i.e., had watched 3D movies or played 3D games in the past). The demographic data including age, gender, and handedness of both experimental groups is listed in Appendix 6A.

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