Participant Recruitment

The study was conducted at University of Technology, PETRONAS. Students from different departments were recruited to participate in the study based on the inclusion criteria. For recruitment, we advertised the invitation for participation in the study on UTP E-learning (http://, and displayed a pamphlet on notice boards in student residential hostels and in cafeterias. Potential participants who responded for participation were recruited based on inclusion criteria and contacted for participation as per their given contact details and asked for to fill out a data collection form.

Experiment Design

In this study, the participants were divided into two groups: one group of participants was tested with 2D contents while another group was tested with 3D contents. Before starting the experiment, participants went through a screening procedure, where they had completed a screening

Experiment design

Figure 7.2 Experiment design.

questionnaire and performed an intelligence test. As in this study the participants were called one by one for the experiment, so the assignment of participants to 2D or 3D group had been done randomly (e.g., participant #1 for 2D, participant #2 for 3D, participant #3 for 2D, participant #4 for 3D, and so on).

The experiment consisted of four sessions; experimental tasks were distributed among the sessions. The gap between two successive sessions was 8 weeks/2 months. This 2-month interval was the retention interval (see Fig. 7.2).

The following is the list of the experimental tasks used in the study:

  • • general cognitive ability task (Session 1)
  • • learning task (Sessions 1,2, and 3)
  • • oddball task (Session 1)
  • • memory recall task (Sessions 1,2, 3, and 4)
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