Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) Test

RAPM test is a nonverbal standard psychometric test used to measure fluid intelligence ability (for more detail about RAPM and its procedure, see Ref. 38). The details of RAPM are also mentioned in Chapter 7, 2D and 3D Educational Contents.

D Visualization Material

In this study, stereoscopic 3D animations were used from Designmate, Inc., available at www.designnmate.com. The selected animations contained information about human anatomy and functions. Further, a 42-inch LG passive polarized 3D display with refresh rate 240 fps was used for visualization in this study.

Visual Oddball Task

The oddball paradigm is a commonly used task for cognitive and attention measurement in ERP studies.38-40 In this study, two visual stimuli, a box and a sphere, shapes of size 5 cm, were designed as the standard and target stimuli, respectively (see Fig. 8.2). The presentation duration of each trial, either the standard (box) or target (sphere) trial, was 500 ms with the intertrial interval (ITI) between two consecutive trials being 500 ms. The participants were instructed to press “0” for a target stimulus and not to respond for a standard stimulus. Further, the reaction time and correct target detection of each participant were recorded. Two types of error were expected: false alarm (i.e., pressed key when standard stimulus was shown)

Visual stimuli of oddball task (box represents the standard stimulus and sphere represents the target stimulus)

Figure 8.2 Visual stimuli of oddball task36 (box represents the standard stimulus and sphere represents the target stimulus).

and omission (forgot to press key when target stimulus appeared). Thirty percent of the trials were kept target and 70% were nontarget trials, i.e., there were 40 target trials and 135 total trials presented. Total time spent on the oddball task was 3.35 minutes.

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