This section provides a list of some of the papers that have utilized the data acquired from the experiment described in this chapter. The following papers should be cited when using the experiment design or the data provided with this chapter.

  • 1. Amin HU, Malik AS, Badruddin N, Kamel N, Hussain M. Effects of stereoscopic 3D display technology on event-related potentials (ERPs). In: 7th International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, Montpellier, France; 2015, pp. 1084-1087.
  • 2. Amin HU, Malik AS, Mumtaz W, Badruddin N, Kamel N. Evaluation of passive polarized stereoscopic 3D display for visual & mental fatigues. In: 37th International IEEE EMBS Conference, Melano, Italy; 2015,pp. 1084-1087.


This chapter provides the details of the experiment design available in the papers mentioned in Section 8.7 and in the PhD thesis of Hafeez Ullah Amin, which is available at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS.


  • 1. Malik AS, Raja Khairuddin RNH, Amin HU, et al. EEG based evaluation of stereoscopic 3D displays for viewer discomfort. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2015.
  • 2. Li J, Barkowsky M, Le Callet P Visual discomfort of stereoscopic 3D videos: influence of 3D motion. Displays. 2014;35(1):49-57.
  • 3. Li HCO, Junho S, Keetaek K, Seunghyun L. Measurement of 3D Visual Fatigue Using Event-Related Potential (ERP): 3D Oddball Paradigm. Paper presented at: 3DTV Conference: The True VisionCapture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, May 28-30, 2008.
  • 4. Kaneko K, Sakamoto K. Spontaneous blinks as a criterion of visual fatigue during prolonged work on visual display terminals. Percept Mot Skills. 2001;92(1):234—250.
  • 5. Donghyun K, Sunghwan C, Sangil P, Kwanghoon S. Stereoscopic visual fatigue measurement based on fusional response curve and eye-blinks. Paper presented at: Digital Signal Processing (DSP), 2011 17th International Conference on July 6—8, 2011.
  • 6. Amin HU, Malik AS, Badruddin N, Kamel N, Hussain M. Effects of stereoscopic 3D display technology on Event-related Potentials (ERPs). Paper presented at: 7th International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering; April 22—24th, 2015; Montpellier, France.
  • 7. Amin HU, Malik AS, Subhani AR, Badruddin N, Chooi W-T. Dynamics of scalp potential and autonomic nerve activity during intelligence test. Lee M, Hirose A, Hou Z-G, Kil R, editors. Neural Information Processing,Vol 8226. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 2013:9-16.
  • 8. Tam WJ, Speranza F, Yano S, Shimono K, Ono H. Stereoscopic 3D-TV: Visual Comfort.

IEEE Trans Broadcast. 2011;57(2):335-346.

  • 9. Mclntire JP, Havig PR, Geiselman EE. What is 3D good for? A review of human performance on stereoscopic 3D displays; 2012.
  • 10. Kooi FL, Toet A. Visual comfort of binocular and 3D displays. Displays. 2004;25(2-3):99-108.
  • 11. Javidi B, Okano F. Three-dimensional television, video, and display technologies. New York: Springer Science & Business Media; 2002.
  • 12. Huang K, Yuan J-C, Tsai C-H, Hsueh W-J, Wang N-Y. How crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays. Paper presented at: Electronic Imaging; 2003.
  • 13. Yano S, Ide S, Mitsuhashi T, Thwaites H. A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images. Displays. 2002;23(4):191-201.
  • 14. Ukai K, Howarth PA. Visual fatigue caused by viewing stereoscopic motion images: Background, theories, and observations. Displays. 2008;29(2):106-116.
  • 15. Li H-CO, Seo J, Kham K, Lee S. Measurement of 3D visual fatigue using event-related potential (ERP): 3D oddball paradigm. Paper presented at: 2008 3DTV Conference: The True Vision-Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video; 2008.
  • 16. Ujike H, Watanabe H. Effects of stereoscopic presentation on visually induced motion sickness. Paper presented at: IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging; 2011.
  • 17. Solimini AG. Are there side effects to watching 3D movies? A prospective crossover observational study on visually induced motion sickness. PloS one. 2013;8(2):e56160.
  • 18. IJsselsteijn WA, de Ridder H, Vliegen J. Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain. Paper presented at: Electronic Imaging; 2000.
  • 19. Malik AS, Amin HU, Badruddin N, Kamel N, Ahmad RF, Mumtaz W. Evaluation of stereoscopic 3D based educational contents for long-term memorization. Ann Neurol. 2015;78(S19) S89-S89.
  • 20. Malik AS, Amin HU, Kamel N, Chooi W-T, Hussain M. The effects of 3D technology on the brain during learning and memory recall processes. Ann Neurol. 2014;76 S24-S24.
  • 21. Thomson WD. Eye problems and visual display terminals—the facts and the fallacies.

Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1998;18(2):111-119.

  • 22. Bergqvist U. Visual display terminal work—a perspective on long-term changes and discomforts. Int J Ind Ergon. 1995;16(3):201-209.
  • 23. Ishida S, Yamashita Y, Matsuishi T, Ohshima M, Ohshima H, Maeda H. Photosensitive seizures provoked while viewing pocket monsters, a made-for-television animation program in Japan. Paper presented at: EPILEPSIA; 1999.
  • 24. Abe M, Yoshizawa M, Sugita N, et al. Independent component analysis of finger photoplethysmography for evaluating effects of visually-induced motion sickness. Paper presented at: International Conference on Virtual Reality; 2007.
  • 25. Shibata T, Kim J, Hoffman DM, Banks MS. The zone of comfort: predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays. J Vision. 2011;11(8):11.
  • 26. Lambooij M, IJsselsteijn W, Heynderickx I. Visual discomfort of 3D TV: assessment methods and modeling. Displays. 2011;32(4):209—218.
  • 27. Lambooij M, Fortuin M, Heynderickx I, IJsselsteijn W. Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: a review. J Imaging Sci Technol. 2009;53(3) 30201-30201.
  • 28. Kaseda Y, Jiang C, Kurokawa K, Mimori Y, Nakamura S. Objective evaluation of fatigue by event-related potentials. J Neurol Sci. 1998;158(1):96-100.
  • 29. Polich J. Neuropsychology of P300. Oxford handbook of event-related potential components; 2012, pp. 159-188.
  • 30. Mun S, Park M-C, Park S, Whang M. SSVEP and ERP measurement of cognitive fatigue caused by stereoscopic 3D. Neurosci Lett. 2012;525(2):89-94.
  • 31. Murata A, Uetake A, Takasawa Y Evaluation of mental fatigue using feature parameter extracted from event-related potential. Int J Ind Ergon. 2005;35(8):761-770.
  • 32. Park S, Won M, Mun S, Lee E, Whang M. Does visual fatigue from 3D displays affect autonomic regulation and heart rhythm? Int J Psychophysiol. 2014;92(1):42-48.
  • 33. Wronka E, Kaiser J, Coenen AML. Psychometric intelligence and P3 of the event- related potentials studied with a 3-stimulus auditory oddball task. Neurosci Lett. 2013;535(0):110-115.
  • 34. Mun S, Kim E-S, Park M-C. Effect of mental fatigue caused by mobile 3D viewing on selective attention: an ERP study. Int J Psychophysiol. 2014;94(3):373-381.
  • 35. Chen C-Y, Ke M-D, Wu P-J, Kuo C-D, Pong B-J, Lai Y-Y. The influence of polarized 3D display on autonomic nervous activities. Displays. 2014;35(4):196-201.
  • 36. Amin HU, Malik AS, Mumtaz W, Badruddin N, Kamel N. Evaluation of passive polarized stereoscopic 3D display for visual & mental fatigues. Paper presented at: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE; August 25-29, 2015.
  • 37. Portella C, Machado S, Arias-Carrion O, et al. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study. Neurol Int. 2012;4(3)
  • 38. Amin HU, Malik AS, Kamel N, Chooi W-T, Hussain M. P300 correlates with learning & memory abilities and fluid intelligence. J NeuroEng Rehabil. 2015;12(1):87.
  • 39. Huettel SA, McCarthy G. What is odd in the oddball task? Prefrontal cortex is activated by dynamic changes in response strategy. Neuropsychologia. 2004;42(3):379-386.
  • 40. Maurage P, Philippot P, Verbanck P, et al. Is the P300 deficit in alcoholism associated with early visual impairments (P100, N170)? An oddball paradigm. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118(3):633-644.
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