Mobile Phone Calls
- 11.1 Introduction 161
- 11.2 Previous Studies 162
- 11.3 Importance of Studying the Effects of Mobile Phone Calls 164
- 11.4 Problem Description 164
- 11.5 Software and Hardware 165
- 11.6 Experiment Design and Protocol 165
- 11.6.1 Target Population 165
- 11.6.2 Inclusion Criteria 165
- 11.6.3 Exclusion Criteria 165
- 11.6.4 Sample Size Calculation 167
- 11.6.5 Participant Recruitment 167
- 11.6.6 Experiment Design 167
- 11.6.7 Experiment Procedure 167
- 11.7 Data Description 169
Cellular mobile phones are an essential feature of modern telecommunications and its spread all over the world. The main function of cellular phones is to connect people for interpersonal communication. It is assumed that mobile phone users would be less lonely, more interactive with other people, and would have good psychological status. Mobile phones have different functions including calls, messages, games, access to Internet, and so on. Apart from these functions, phone calls are a direct, fast, two-way communication feature. Mobile phones establish the calls by transmitting high-frequency radio waves via their radio antennae, which convert electrical signals into radio waves and transmit them to the receiver via the base station. The range of radiated radiofrequency of mobile phones is from 450 to 2500 MHz and the radiated power from the antenna is around 125 mW and from the cell phone about 2W1
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Designing EEG Experiments for Studying the Brain.
The human body may absorb some radiation and the brain of heavy users of mobile phone calls may be influenced by the electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Mobile phone users make up approximately 80% of the population in most countries, and with an increase in the quality of lifestyle and economic status around the world, the number of mobile users is growing. Therefore, this issue has motivated the researchers to conduct this investigation and study the effects of EM radiation on the human brain during mobile phone call use using a brain mapping technique. Various brain mapping techniques are available such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). EEG is relatively easy to use, low cost, and has good time resolution features. EEG signals can record directly the changes occurring inside the brain in terms of voltage potentials, which can be analyzed using computational techniques to extract useful information for the assessment of brain cognitive states.2,3 The EM radiation may modulate the EEG signals recorded over the scalp of the participants during the mobile phone calls.
In general, mobile phone users hold the mobile device very close to their right or left ear during receiving or sending phone calls and some users prolong the calls for hours; hence, the probability that human brain will absorb the EM radiation is high. Some users reported discomfort and unspecific symptoms during and after the phone calls, such as headaches and dizziness.4 In the experiment reported in this chapter, the side effects of mobile phone calls on the human brain is investigated using EEG signals to bring awareness to the public about EM radiation, in order to take precautions during mobile phone calls.