Sample Size Calculation

The sample size computation for this study was not predefined, as it was a pilot study. Further research on this topic may be required to properly compute the sample size using the mean differences among the different conditions (i.e., left and right side, with distance and without distance) of this study, which are reported in the published papers.

Participant Recruitment

Twenty-seven healthy participants were recruited from students of Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS to participate in the study, including male, female, and different nationalities. All the participants were free from any medication, skin allergy, or head injury. Participants suffering from headaches were excluded from the study because this may affect the behavior of the EEG signals. Furthermore, only right-handed participants were recruited because the participants were required to hold the mobile device in hand, so using the right or left hand may affect the brain functions. Therefore, all participants recruited were of the same handedness.

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