The Organization Ecology of Interest Communities: Assessment and Agenda

The core: Interest organization demographyMicro-level processes: Niche theory, adaptation, and survivalImplications: Organization ecology and lobbyingOverall assessmentsNotesReferencesOrganizational Demography Research in the United StatesWhat is organizational demography?Density dependence theoryDensity dependence theory in political scienceDensity dependence theory and other disciplinesBeyond density dependence in sociology and political scienceWhy density dependence theory is importantThe future of organizational demography in political scienceAge dependenceOrganizational transformationLate stage population development and the possibility of resurgenceOther directionsThe nagging data problemGathering accurate population-level dataConclusionReferencesInterest Organization Demography Research in EuropeCounting organizations per typeGeneral studies of organizational populationsConclusionNoteReferencesToward a Population Ecology Approach to Transnational Advocacy? An Emerging Research FieldCharacterizing the research fieldBottom-up mappingTop-down mappingLessons learned and ways forwardConclusionNotesReferencesChallenges of Integrating Levels of Analysis in Interest Group ResearchThe population-level view of interest group politicsChallenges to integrationTheoreticalEmpiricalStatisticalExamples of integrating researchInterest group competitionMulti-venue lobbyingFinal thoughtsNotesReferencesOrganizational Populations: Professionalization, Maintenance and Democratic DeliveryOrganizational growth and professionalizationProfessionalization: maintenance and survivalAstroturf participation: creating the participation playersA dysfunctional democratic market?Conclusions: Professionalize or perishNotesReferencesCase Study Approaches to Studying Organization Survival and AdaptationThe struggle to survive in case study researchCompeting (and cooperating) for resources in a nicheLife's a niche and then you die?How the struggle to survive shapes group structure, relationships and activitiesInternal organizational activities and institutionsInteractions with other organizations and individualsInfluence in the policy processEvaluating the case study literature and directions for future researchThe malleability of guilds, niches and environmentsEmpirical scope and focus of case studiesThe top-down view of organized interestsMoving forward with organizational ecology concepts in case studiesConclusionReferencesLobbying as a Leveraged Act: On Resource Dependencies and Lobby PresenceHow resource dependencies explain lobby presenceViable resource levels through competitive exclusionViable resource levels by manipulating the environmentDoes leverage exist in interest representation?Lobbying as a leveraged act: consequences and implicationsWhy the notion of lobbying as a leveraged act is relevantNoteReferencesLouder Chorus - Same Accent: The Representation of Interests in Pressure Politics, 1981-2011The composition of the pressure system: competing perspectivesThe Washington Representatives StudyThe expanding Washington pressure community: 1981-2011Varying growth rates across categoriesChanging organizational capacity: manpower and dollarsDollars spent on lobbyingThe changing distribution of organized interestsThe changing distribution of organizational capacity: manpower and dollarsConclusionNotesReferencesInterest Community Influence: A Neopluralist PerspectiveDefining neopluralismScope and conflictContext and uncertaintyLinkages and feedbackThe contributions of population ecologyContext, context, contextAgendas and feedbacksNeopluralism, population ecology, and influenceMoving forwardReferencesPopulation Dynamics and RepresentationThe EA databaseThe growth of the US associational universeThe co-evolution of groups and governmentAssessing the population ecology approachFuture research using population dataNotesReferencesThe Influence of Organization Ecology Research on Population Ecology of Interest Representation: Present Practices and Future ProspectsOrganizational ecology: what is it all about?Core methodsDefining and delineating populationsPopulation development: density dependence, entry and exitHow environments shape populations: selection or adaptation?Organizational ecology and the PE of interest representationThe evolution of the organizational ecology literatureThe role of ecology: theory or metaphor or something else?Identity-based approachesFrom resource to identity-based space?Building identities from 'categories'Hybridity and category spanningBack to group scholarshipNotesReferencesBeyond Metaphor: Populations and Groups, Interests, and LobbyistsPopulation ecology: Four concernsMetaphor and founding assumptions of PE research on organized interestsAggregation I: the question of populationsPopulations II: levels of analysisGroup organizationLobbying/advocacy/influenceBeyond metaphor: opportunities and limitations of PE theory and researchNotesReferencesThe Future of Organization Ecology in Interest RepresentationThe core: interest organization demographyMicro-level processes: niche theory, adaptation, and survivalImplications: organization ecology and lobbyingOverall assessmentsConclusionReferences
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