Tungurahua’s Failed IWM Campaign (Breakdown during Rule Making)
GTZ coordinated the coalition’s efforts through PROMACH. In line with dominant international norms, GTZ advocated a market for ecosystem services to shape the incentives of water resource users and to finance watershed conservation and improvements to canals. In 2001, with provincial government support, GTZ hired a Costa Rican team to design a payment for ecosystem services program based on recently established programs in Costa Rica and the Ecuadorian canton Pimampiro (Comision Ejecutiva Provincial 2002). This technical team included Doris Cordero, a Costa Rican forestry expert involved in one of the world’s first payment for ecosystem services programs in Heredia, Costa Rica. Cordero subsequently worked for GTZ in Tungurahua and later helped design Ibarra’s IWM reform proposal (see chapter 5).
High Network Capacity Building
From the beginning, Tungurahua’s IWM coalition engaged in a high level of network capacity building. Efforts to create a new linking institution that would unite the watershed’s stakeholders around IWM reform came to fruition in 2001, when Tungurahua’s Provincial Water Resources Forum was created. Chapter 4 described how in 2000 the consortium CAMAREN founded Ecuador’s national Water Resources Forum. In July 2001, CAMAREN approached CESA and GTZ about creating a provincial forum to prepare Tungurahuans for participating in the national Forum’s first meeting. Tungurahua’s coalition members agreed and named GTZ’s Aline Aroyo the forum’s regional coordinator.6 She and other IWM advocates spent the next several months mobilizing Tungurahuan stakeholders to participate in the province’s first water resources forum, held on January 22, 2002.
Tungurahua’s provincial forum was attended by a diverse array of stakeholder groups, including 41 representatives of public and private institutions and NGOs
CESA later became the coordinator of Tungurahua’s Provincial Water Resources Forum.
as well as 72 directors of irrigation and potable water councils. Participants put forth several proposals for addressing identified needs, decentralizing watershed management, and creating a participatory mechanism that would allow stakeholders to discuss issues and make agreements at the watershed level (Mesa de Trabajo Provincial 2002). Participants at the forum also announced plans to create a participatory body charged with developing an integrated watershed management plan.
The provincial government and GTZ used the forum to announce their plans for IWM reform, including the creation of a local financing mechanism. In his keynote speech, Prefect Fernando Naranjo announced plans to create a watershed management fund financed by a payment for ecosystem services scheme (Foro Provincial de los Recursos Hidricos en Tungurahua 2002, 2, 9). Carlos Sanchez, the government’s director ofwater resources announced the provincial government would make an initial capital investment, but that the fund would subsequently be financed through a tax on water use.
The provincial government and GTZ were confident the proposal would receive widespread social support. Noting people’s increased understanding of watershed management issues, Sanchez asserted that “many [people] are prepared to cooperate and pay the [Provincial] Council taxes to be reinvested. If the Provincial Council makes an investment of around $100,000 over the next two or three months, they will be willing to invest with their taxes for at least thirty years” (Foro Provincial de los Recursos Hidricos en Tungurahua 2002, 19).