Small Unmanned Fixed-Wing Aircraft Design. A Practical Approach

PrefaceI Introducing Fixed-Wing UAVsPreliminariesExternally Sourced ComponentsManufacturing MethodsProject DECODEThe Stages of DesignConcept DesignPreliminary DesignDetail DesignManufacturing DesignIn-service Design and DecommissioningSummaryUnmanned Air VehiclesA Brief Taxonomy of UAVsThe Morphology of a UAVLifting SurfacesControl SurfacesFuselage and Internal StructurePropulsion SystemsFuel TanksControl SystemsPayloadsTake-off and Landing GearMain Design DriversII The Aircraft in More Detail WingsSimple Wing Theory and Aerodynamic ShapeSparsCoversRibsFuselage AttachmentsAilerons/Roll ControlFlapsWing TipsWing-housed Retractable UndercarriageIntegral Fuel TanksFuselages and Tails (Empennage)Main Fuselage/Nacelle StructureWing AttachmentEngine and Motor MountingsAvionics TraysPayloads - Camera MountingsIntegral Fuel TanksAssembly Mechanisms and Access HatchesUndercarriage AttachmentTails (Empennage)PropulsionLiquid-Fueled IC EnginesGlow-plug IC EnginesSpark Ignition Gasoline IC EnginesIC Engine TestingRare-earth Brushless Electric MotorsPropellersEngine/Motor ControlFuel SystemsBatteries and GeneratorsAirframe Avionics and SystemsPrimary Control Transmitter and ReceiversAvionics Power SuppliesServosWiring, Buses, and BoardsAutopilotsPayload Communications SystemsAncillariesResilience and RedundancyUndercarriagesWheelsSuspensionSteeringRetractable SystemsIII Designing UAVsThe Process of DesignGoals and ConstraintsAirworthinessLikely Failure ModesAerodynamic and Stability FailureStructural FailureEngine/Motor FailureControl System FailurePrimary Tx/Rx FailureControl Surface FailureAutopilot FailureSystems EngineeringWork-breakdown StructureInterface DefinitionsAllocation of ResponsibilityRequirements FlowdownCompliance TestingCost and Weight ManagementDesign “Checklist”Tool SelectionGeometry/CAD CodesConcept DesignOperational Simulation and Mission PlanningAerodynamic and Structural Analysis CodesDesign and Decision ViewingSupporting DatabasesConcept Design: Initial Constraint AnalysisThe Design BriefDrawing up a Good Design BriefEnvironment and MissionConstraintsAirframe TopologyUnmanned versus Manned - Rethinking TopologySearching the Space of TopologiesSystematic “invention” of UAV ConceptsDivision“Taking Out”Adapting the Design to Local ConditionsAsymmetryMultiple FunctionsNestingBlessing in DisguiseDesigning for FailureThe Other Way AroundPeriodic ActionRushing ThroughCheap/Disposable ComponentsColor ChangeDiscarding (and Recovery?)Managing the Concept Design ProcessAirframe and Powerplant Scaling via Constraint AnalysisThe Role of Constraint AnalysisThe Impact of Customer RequirementsConcept Constraint Analysis - A Proposed Computational ImplementationThe Constraint SpaceA Parametric Constraint Analysis ReportAbout This DocumentDesign BriefTake-off performanceClimb PerformanceTurn PerformanceApproach and LandingUnit ConversionsBasic Geometry and Initial GuessesPreamblePreliminary CalculationsThe Operating EnvironmentBasic Aerodynamic Performance CalculationsConstraintsConstraint 1: Level, Constant Velocity TurnConstraint 2: Rate of ClimbConstraint 3: Take-Off Ground Run ConstraintConstraint 4: Desired Cruise AirspeedConstraint 5: Approach SpeedCombined Constraint DiagramThe Combined Constraint Diagram and Its Place in the Design ProcessSpreadsheet-Based Concept Design and ExamplesConcept Design AlgorithmRangeStructural Loading CalculationsWeight and CoG EstimationLongitudinal StabilityPowering and Propeller SizingResulting Design: Decode-1A Bigger Single Engine Design: Decode-2A Twin Tractor Design: SPOTTERPreliminary Geometry DesignPreliminary Airframe Geometry and CADDesigning Decode-1 with AirCONICSPreliminary Aerodynamic and Stability AnalysisPanel Method Solvers - XFoil and XFLR5RANS Solvers - FluentMeshing, Turbulence Model Choice, andy+Example Two-dimensional Airfoil AnalysisExample Three-dimensional Airfoil AnalysisD Models of Simple WingsExample Airframe AerodynamicsAnalyzing Decode-1 with XFLR5: AerodynamicsAnalyzing Decode-1 with XFLR5: Control SurfacesAnalyzing Decode-1 with XFLR5: StabilityFlight SimulatorsAnalyzing Decode-1 with FluentPreliminary Structural AnalysisStructural Modeling Using AirCONICSStructural Analysis Using Simple Beam TheoryFinite Element Analysis (FEA)FEA Model PreparationFEA Complete Spar and Boom ModelFEA Analysis of 3D Printed and Fiber- or Mylar-clad Foam PartsStructural Dynamics and AeroelasticityEstimating Wing Divergence, Control Reversal, and Flutter Onset SpeedsSummary of Preliminary Structural AnalysisWeight and Center of Gravity ControlWeight ControlLongitudinal Center of Gravity ControlExperimental Testing and ValidationWind Tunnels TestsMounting the ModelCalibrating the TestBlockage EffectsTypical ResultsBasic ResultsElevator EffectivenessRudder EffectivenessAirframe Load TestsStructural Test InstrumentsStructural Mounting and LoadingStatic Structural TestingDynamic Structural TestingAvionics TestingDetail Design: Constructing Explicit Design GeometryThe Generation of GeometryFuselageAn Example UAV AssemblyHand SketchesMaster SketchesD Printed PartsDecode-1: The Development of a Parametric Geometry for the SLS Nylon Wing Spar/Boom “Scaffold Clamp”ApproachInputsBreakdown of PartParametric CapabilityMore Detailed ModelManufactureWingsWing Section ProfileThree-dimensional WingIV Manufacture and FlightManufactureExternally Sourced ComponentsThree-Dimensional PrintingSelective Laser Sintering (SLS)Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)Sealing ComponentsHot-wire Foam CuttingFiber and Mylar Foam CladdingLaser CuttingWiring LoomsAssembly MechanismsBayonets and Locking PinsClampsConventional Bolts and ScrewsStorage and Transport CasesRegulatory Approval and DocumentationAviation Authority RequirementsSystem DescriptionAirframePerformanceAvionics and Ground Control SystemAcceptance Flight DataOperations ManualOrganization, Team Roles, and CommunicationsBrief Technical DescriptionOperating Limits, Conditions, and ControlOperational Area and Flight PlansOperational and Emergency ProceduresMaintenance ScheduleSafety CaseRisk Assessment ProcessFailure Modes and EffectsOperational HazardsAccident ListMitigation ListAccident Sequences and MitigationFlight Planning ManualTest Flights and MaintenanceTest Flight PlanningExploration of Flight EnvelopeRanking of Flight Tests by RiskInstrumentation and Recording of Flight Test DataPre-flight Inspection and ChecklistsAtmospheric ConditionsIncident and Crash Contingency Planning, Post Crash Safety, Recording, and Management of Crash SiteTest Flight ExamplesUAS Performance Flight Test (MANUAL Mode)UAS CoG Flight Test (MANUAL Mode)Fuel Consumption TestsEngine Failure, Idle, and Throttle Change TestsAutonomous Flight ControlAuto-Takeoff TestAuto-Landing TestOperational and Safety Flight ScenariosMaintenanceOverall Airframe MaintenanceTime and Flight Expired ItemsEngine ServicingServos and Control SurfacesBatteriesFlight Control SoftwareMaintenance Record KeepingLessons LearnedThings that Have Gone Wrong and WhyV Bibliography
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