Containment structures of U.S. nuclear power plants

PrefaceEvolution of Power Reactors and ContainmentsINTRODUCTIONSTEPS TOWARD DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR REACTORSREACTOR CONCEPTS AND CONTAINMENTSPressurized Water ReactorsBoiling Water ReactorsCONTAINMENT AND CONTAINMENT STRUCTURESPWR ContainmentsLarge Dry PWR Containments.PWR Subatmospheric Containments.PWR Ice Condenser Containments.BWR ContainmentsEarly BWR Containments.BWR Mk I Containments.BWR Mk II Containments.BWR Mk III Containments.REFERENCESRegulatory Requirements and ContainmentsINTRODUCTION (HISTORICAL BACKGROUND)1DEVELOPMENT OF REGULATIONSREGULATORY FRAMEWORKSGuidance Documents and ReportsRegulatory Guides (RGs).Standard Review Plan (SRP)NUREG-Series Reports.Other NRC Documents.TECHNICAL PARTS OF CHAPTER 1 OF TITLE 10Requirements of Parts 20 and 21Requirements of Part 50 and Its SubsectionsRequirements of Part 50 AppendicesRequirements of Part 52 to Part 100CONTAINMENT-RELATED REGULATIONSReactor Site CriteriaGeneral Design CriteriaImplementation of Containment-Related GDCGDC 1 Quality Standards and RecordsGDC 2 Design Bases for Protection against Natural PhenomenaGDC 4 Environmental and Dynamic Effects Design BasesGDC 16 Containment DesignGDC 50 Containment Design BasisGDC 51 Fracture Prevention of Containment Pressure BoundaryGDC 52 Capabilities for Containment Leak Rate TestingGDC 53 Provisions for Containment Testing and InspectionGDC 54 Piping Systems Penetrating ContainmentGDC 55 Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary Penetrating ContainmentGDC 56 Primary Containment IsolationREFERENCESDesign, Construction, Inspection and Testing of Containment StructuresCONCRETE CONTAINMENTSIntroductionConventionally Reinforced Concrete ContainmentsPrestressed Concrete ContainmentsModeling and Analysis ConsiderationsConcrete Containment Design CriteriaDesign Considerations for Prestressed ContainmentsLiner and Liner Anchor DesignPre-Service Inspection and Testing (Concrete)Severe Accident AnalysisSTEEL CONTAINMENTSIntroductionModeling and Analysis ConsiderationsSteel Containment Design CriteriaBuckling AnalysisSevere Accident EvaluationFabrication and InstallationPre-Service Inspection and TestingCONTAINMENT EVALUATION FOR IMPACT AND IMPULSEEvaluation of Local EffectEvaluation of Global ResponseFinite Element AnalysisSpecial Consideration for Aircraft Impact AssessmentREFERENCESInservice Inspections and Leak Rate Testing of ContainmentsINTRODUCTIONPURPOSE OF PERIODIC ISI AND LEAK RATE TESTINGDETERMINISTIC APPROACHContainment Inservice InspectionASME Code.Requirements of Subsection IWE.Requirements of Subsection IWLPrescriptive Leak Rate Testing RequirementsType A Testing.Type B Testing.Type C Tests.Other Requirements.PERFORMANCE BASED APPROACH (PBA)Inservice Inspections and PBALeak Rate Testing and PBAType A Test Requirements.Type B Test Requirements.Type C Test RequirementsRisk Informed Approach (RIA)Discussion of RIA Issues.Industry Actions on ILRT Intervals.Collection of ILRT Failure DataExpert Elicitation of DataMISCELLANEOUS REMARKSREFERENCESLicense Renewal and Aging Management for Continued ServiceINTRODUCTIONLICENSE RENEWAL PROCESS, SAFETY PRINCIPLES, AND REGULATIONSCFR Part 54 (Rule)CFR Part 51GUIDANCE DOCUMENTSNRC Guidance DocumentsRegulatory Guide 1.188, Revision 1.Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report. Standard Review Plan for License Renewal (SRP-LR).Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Reports.Technical Reports in NUREG Series (NUREGs).Industry Guidance DocumentsNUMARC Reports.NEI 95-10.LICENSE RENEWAL INSPECTIONSOPERATING EXPERIENCEREFERENCESContainment Structure Testing, Modeling, and DegradationINTRODUCTIONEARLY ESTIMATES OF CONTAINMENT STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO SEVERE ACCIDENTSLARGE-SCALE CONTAINMENT AND COMPONENT TESTINGContainment Testing PurposeContainment TestsReinforced Concrete Containment Tests.Prestressed Concrete Containment Tests.Steel Containment Tests. Containment Component Testing.CONTAINMENT SEVERE ACCIDENT MODELING AND INSIGHTSConcrete Containment AnalysesSteel Containment AnalysesProbabilistic Modeling of Containment Severe Accident ResponseEFFECTS OF CONTAINMENT DEGRADATION ON ITS SEVERE ACCIDENT RESPONSEExamples of Deterministic ModelingPWR Ice Condenser Steel Containment.BWR Mark I Steel Containment.PWR Reinforced Concrete Containment.PWR Prestressed Concrete Containment.Probabilistic Analysis of Degradation EffectsPWR Ice Condenser Steel Containment.BWR Mark I Steel Containment.PWR Reinforced Concrete Containment.PWR Prestressed Concrete Containment.Risk-Informed Assessment of Degraded ContainmentsContainment Degradation Effects on Severe Accident ConsequencesREFERENCESContainment System Challenges Under Severe AccidentsINTRODUCTIONHYDROGEN COMBUSTIONHydrogen SourcesModes of CombustionDeflagrations.Detonations. Deflagration to Detonation Transitions.Hydrogen Combustion MitigationCORE DEBRIS INTERACTIONS WITH COOLANTCore Debris QuenchingExplosive Interactions of Core Debris with WaterHIGH PRESSURE MELT EXPULSION AND DIRECT CONTAINMENT HEATINGExperimental and Analytic Investigations of Direct Containment HeatingResolution of the Direct Containment Heating IssueOngoing ResearchINTERACTION OF CORE DEBRIS WITH CONCRETENature of Ex-Vessel Core DebrisNature of ConcreteExperimental Investigations of Core Debris Interactions with ConcreteModeling Core Debris Interactions with ConcreteMitigation of Core Debris Interactions with ConcreteAEROSOL BEHAVIOR IN REACTOR CONTAINMENTSAerosol Formation and GrowthNatural Particle Removal ProcessesEffects of Engineered Safety FeaturesAerosol Leakage Out of ContainmentFiltered VentsGASEOUS IODINE IN CONTAINMENTCONSIDERATION OF SEVERE ACCIDENTS IN REGULATORY FRAMEWORKOperating ReactorsAdvanced ReactorsREFERENCESDesign Basis and Beyond Design Basis Considerations of Natural PhenomenaINTRODUCTIONSUMMARY OF DESIGN BASIS FOR NATURAL PHENOMENAKey Regulations Related to Containment DesignSeismicFloodingHigh WindsOther Natural HazardsDESIGN BASIS AND BEYOND DESIGN BASIS EVENTSHistorical PerspectiveEvolution of Hazard UnderstandingSeismic.Flooding.High Winds.Recent Experiences Related to Natural Phenomena HazardsSeismic Experience.Flood Experience.Risk-Informed ConsiderationsMETHODS FOR BEYOND DESIGN BASIS EVALUATIONSHistorical Perspective — Evolution of MethodsSeismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) MethodsGeneral.Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis.Fragility Analysis.Systems Analysis and Quantification.Containment Capacity and Fragility AnalysisSeismic Capacity and Fragility Analysis.Internal Pressure Capacity and Fragility Analysis.Examples and Insights Related to Containment PerformanceConsideration for New ReactorsMethods for Other Natural HazardsCURRENT INITIATIVES FOLLOWING THE FUKUSHIMA EVENTSUMMARY AND GENERAL CONCLUSIONSREFERENCESEvolution of Containment Systems for Gen Ill ReactorsINTRODUCTIONREGULATORY PERSPECTIVES FOR GENERATION III/III+ REACTORSRegulatory ProcessStandardization of Reactor DesignsDESIGN AND ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS FOR STANDARD DESIGNSStructural Aspects of Standardized DesignsTechnical Considerations and Challenges in Structural Designs and AnalysesCertified Seismic Design Response Spectra (CSDRS) and Associated Generic Site Conditions for Design Certification.Structural Models for Seismic Analysis.Stability Evaluation for Seismic Design.Considerations of Settlement Effect in Standard Designs.CONTAINMENT FEATURES OF GENERATION III/III+ REACTORSAdvances of Generation III/III+ Reactor DesignsGeneration III/III+ BWR DesignsABWR.ESBWR.Generation III/III+ PWR DesignsAP1000.US EPR.US APWR.REFERENCES
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