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  • 1. Early school leavers are people aged 18-24 who have only lower secondary education or less and are no longer in education or training (European Council, 2003).
  • 2. Access to the state Education information system is given to employees of the state Education Quality service, municipalities, education institutions (including ECEC institutions), professional education institutions, interest-related education institutions or professional orientation education institutions (irrespective of its legal status) if access is needed for work-related duties.


Cabinet of Ministers (2009), Kartiba, kada aprekina un sadala valsts budzeta mirkdotaciju pasvaldibu izglitibas iestadem birnu no piecu gadu vecuma izglitosana nodarbinato pirmsskolas izglitibas pedagogu darba samaksai un pasvaldibu visparejas pamatizglitibas un visparejas videjas izglitibas iestazu pedagogu darba samaksai [Procedures for Calculating and Allocating state Earmarked subsidies to municipal and Private Educational institutions for Remuneration of Pre-school Education Pedagogues Working with Children from their Age of Five years, and Remuneration of Pedagogues in General secondary Education institutions], Cabinet Regulation No. 1616, Cabinet of ministers, Republic of Latvia, Riga, (accessed 15 may 2015).

Carrizo, L., C. sauvageot and N. Bella (2003), Information Tools for the Preparation and Monitoring of Education Plans, uNEsCo,

Cassidy, T. (2006), Education Management Information System (EMIS) Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: Lessons and Challenges, inter-American development Bank, Washington, DC.

Central statistical Bureau of Latvia (2015), Statistical Yearbook of Latvia 2014, Central statistical Bureau of Latvia, Riga, files/nr_01_latvijas_statistikas_gadagramata_2014_statistical_yearbook_of_ latvia_14_00_lv_en_0.pdf (accessed 15 may 2015).

Central statistical Bureau of Latvia (2013), “Population census 2011 - Key indicators”, Central statistical Bureau of Latvia, Riga, print/statistikas-temas/population-census-2011-key-indicators-33613.html (accessed 15 may 2015).

Civitta (2014), Augstakas izglitibas instituciju finansu - ekonomiskas darbibas izvertejums un publisko parskatu konsolidacija [The Assessment of Financial-Economic Operations of Institutions of Higher Education and the Consolidation of Public Reports], ministry of Education and science, Riga.

CSCC (2012), National Development Plan 2014-2020, Cross-Sectoral Coordination Centre, Riga, dokumenti/NDP2020_English_Final.pdf.

Estermann, T., T. Nokkala and M. Steinel (2011), University Autonomy in Europe II. The Scorecard, European university Association, Brussels.

European Commission (2015), National Reform Programme of Latvia for the Implementation of the ‘Europe 2020’ Strategy: Progress Report, European Commission, Riga, nrp2015_latvia_en.pdf.

European Council (2003), “Council conclusions on reference levels of European average performance in education and training (benchmarks)”, Official Journal of the European Union, vol. 46, pp. C134/3-134/4.

Eurostat (2015a), “Total fertility rate”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, http:// pcode=tsdde220&plugin=1.

Eurostat (2015b), “Real GDP growth rate - volume”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, pcode=tec00115&plugin=1 (accessed 15 May 2015).

Eurostat (2015c), “Total unemployment rate”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, en&pcode=tsdec45 0&plugin=1 (accessed 1 October 2015).

Eurostat (2015d), “At risk of poverty rate”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, http:// (accessed 15 May 2015).

Eurostat (2015e), “Statistics explained: Income distribution statistics”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, index.php/Income_distribution_statistics (accessed 15 May 2015).

Eurostat (2015f), “Early leavers from education and training by sex”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, b=table&plugin=1&language=en&pcode=t2020_40.

Eurostat (2015g), “Lifelong learning - Percentage of adult population aged 25-64 participating in education and training”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, (accessed 15 May 2015).

Eurostat (2015h), “Population density”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, http:// (accessed 15 July 2015).

Eurostat (2015i) “Population by age group”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, (accessed 15 July 2015).

Eurostat (2014a), “Teachers and trainers; age distributions - Pupils to teachers ratio”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, http://appsso.eurostat. (accessed 15 May 2015).

Eurostat (2014b), “GDP per capita in PPS”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, http:// age=en&pcode=tec00114 (accessed 15 May 2015).

Eurydice (2007), School Autonomy in Europe: Policies and Measures, European Commission, Brussels, eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/090EN.pdf.

Eurypedia (2015), “Latvia: Overview”, Eurypedia - the European Encyclopaedia on National Education Systems, fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Latvia:Overview (accessed 15 May 2015).

Falco, P. et al. (forthcoming), “Ethnicity and earnings in the Latvian labour market”, ELS Working Paper, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Fazekas, M. and T. Burns (2012), “Exploring the complex interaction between governance and knowledge in education”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 67, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/5k9flcx2l340-en.

Geske, A. et al. (2006), “Family background, school quality and rural-urban disparities in student learning achievement in Latvia”, Prospects, Vol. 36/4, pp. 419-431.

Grivins, M. (2012), “Implementation of per capita education funding in the Baltic States”, Baltic Journal of Education Studies, Vol. 2/2, pp. 87-108,

Hazans, M. (2013), “Emigration from Latvia: Recent trends and economic impact”, in OECD, Coping with Emigration in Baltic and East European Countries, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/9789264204928-7-en.

IMF (2014), Baltic Cluster Report: Selected Issues, IMF (International Monetary Fund), Washington, DC, scr/2014/cr14117.pdf.

Johansone, I. (2010), “Achievement equity by urbanization in Latvia’s primary education: Analysis of PIRLS 2006 and TIMSS 2007 data”, paper presented at the 4th IEA International Research Conference, Gothenburg,

1-3 July 2010, IRC2010_Johansone.pdf.

Krisjane, Z. and T. Lace (2012), Social Impact of Emigration and Rural- Urban Migration in Central and Eastern Europe: Final Country Report: Latvia, European Commission DG Employment, social Affairs and Inclusion,

Lehmann H. and A. Zaiceva (2015), “Key labour market trends in Latvia”, unpublished manuscript.

Levacic, R. (2008), “Financing schools: Evolving patterns of autonomy and control”, Educational Management Administration and Leadership, vol. 36/2, pp. 221-34.

LIAA (2014), “Foreign trade statistics”, Latvian Investment and development Agency website, (accessed on 15 may 2015).

ministry of Economics (2014a), Report on Economic Development of Latvia, ministry of Economics, Riga.

ministry of Economics (2014b), Informativais Zinojums par Darba Tirgus Videja un Ilgtermina Prognozem [Informative note on mid-term and Long-term Forecast of Labour market], ministry of Economics, Riga,

ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional development (2010), Teritoriala pieeja atbalsta planosana un sniegsana [Territorial Approach in Planning and Providing support], ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional development, Riga, www. TeritPieejaAtbPlansnieg.pdf.

ministry of Foreign Affairs (2005), Educational Reform in Latvia, ministry of Foreign Affairs, Riga,

MoEs (2015), “OECD-Latvia accession education and skills accession review - Country background report”, ministry of Education and science, Riga.

MoEs (2014), Education Development Guidelines 2014-2020, ministry of Education and science, Riga,

OECD (forthcoming), OECD Reviews of Labour Market and Social Policies: Latvia, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2015a), OECD Economic Surveys: Latvia 2015, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2015b), “Labour Market Statistics: Labour force statistics by sex and age: indicators”, OECD Employment and Labour Market Statistics (database),

oECD (2015c), Investing in Youth: Latvia, investing in youth, oECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2015d), “Economic outlook No. 98 - November 2015”, OECD Economic Outlook (database), OECD, aspx?queryid=51396 (accessed 9 November 2015).

OECD (2015e), “Labour Force Statistics: Summary tables”, OECD Employment and Labour Market Statistics (database), http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/data-00286-en (accessed 15 July 2015).

OECD (2014a), Teacher Remuneration in Latvia: An OECD Perspective, OECD Publishing, Paris, of%20Teacher%20Remuneration%20in%20Latvia_OPS_FINAL.pdf.

OECD (2014b), Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2014c), PISA 2012 Results (Volume I, Revised edition, February 2014): What Students Know and Can Do: Student Performance in Mathematics, Reading and Science, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://

OECD (2014d), TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning, TALIS, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/9789264196261-en.

OECD (2013a), PISA 2012 Results (Volume IV): What Makes Schools Successful? Resources, Policies and Practices, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2013b), Synergies for Better Learning: An International Perspective on Evaluation and Assessment, OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/9789264190658-en.

OECD (2013c), PISA 2012 Results: Excellence through Equity (Volume II): Giving Every Student the Chance to Succeed, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2010), Improving Schools: Strategies for Action in Mexico, OECD Publishing, Paris,

Romele, L. (2013), “Estimation of rates of return to investments in education in Latvia”, Regional Formation and Development Studies, Vol. 11/3,

State Regional Development Agency (2012), Development of Regions in Latvia 2011, Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development, State Regional Development Agency, Riga, www.vraa. 2011%20ENG_Q_ia%20kartes%20horizontali.pdf.

UNESCO (2015), Education for All 2015 National Review: Latvia, UNESCO,

UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2015a), “Net enrolment rate by level of education”, UIS database, aspx?queryid=144# (accessed 15 July 2015).

UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2015b), “Total net enrolment rate by level of education”, UIS database, aspx?queryid=146# (accessed 15 July 2015).

UNESCO International Bureau of Education (2011), World Data on Education, 7th Edition. 2010/11: Latvia, user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Latvia.pdf.

UNESCO International Bureau of Education (2006), Latvia Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Programmes, UNESCO International Bureau of Education, Geneva, images/0014/001472/147221e.pdf.

Vanags, A. (2013), Latvia’s Exports: The Real “Success Story”, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, Riga, assets/docs/izpetes-zinojumi/Latvias_exports.

Waslander, S., C. Pater and M. van der Weide (2010), “Markets in education: An analytical review of empirical research on market mechanisms in education”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 52, OECD Publishing, Paris,

World Bank (2015), “School life expectancy, primary to tertiary, both sexes (years)”, Education Statistics: Core Indicators, World DataBank, http:// core-indicators&preview=off (accessed 15 July 2015).

World Bank (2014), Higher Education Financing in Latvia: Analysis of Strengths and Weaknesses, World Bank Reimbursable Advisory Service on Higher Education Financing in Latvia, World Bank, files/news/24067/lv_hef_output_1_final_18mar14,pdf.

World Bank (2013), Latvia: “Who is Unemployed, Inactive or Needy? Assessing Post-Crisis Policy Options”: Analysis of the Incentive Structure Created by the Tax and Benefit System, World Bank, upload/aktualitates/lv_tax_benefit_270513,pdf.

World Bank (2010), Latvia: From Exuberance to Prudence: A Public Expenditure Review of Government Administration and the Social Sectors (In Two Volumes): Volume I: Overview and Summary, World Bank, Washington DC, WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/06/11/090224b0828d1539/1 0/ Rendered/PDF/Overview0and0summary.pdf.

Zarina, s. and M. Regaise (2006), Assessment Project Country Report: Latvia, European Agency for Children with special needs and inclusive Education,

Zasova, A. and A. Zdanovica (2014), “Equity and efficiency in the Latvian tax-benefit system”, FREE Policy Brief Series, №vember 2014, FREE (Forum for Research on Eastern Europe and Emerging Economies), https://

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