• 1. The EU21 average is calculated as the unweighted mean of the data values of the 21 countries that are members of both the European Union and the oeCD for which data are available or can be estimated. These 21 countries are Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, ireland, italy, luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
  • 2. Authentic learning refers to a wide variety of educational and instructional techniques focused on connecting what students are taught in school to real-world issues, problems, and applications (Great Schools Partnership, 2013). it typically focuses on real-world, complex problems and their solutions, using role-playing exercises, problem-based activities, case studies and participation in virtual communities of practice (lombardi, 2007).


Aff, J., E. Paschinger and J. Rechberger (2013), “The realistion of hybrid qualifications in Austria - structures, analysis, empirical findings”, in T. Deissinger et al. (eds.), Hybrid Qualifications: Structures and Problems in the Context of European VET Policy, Peter Lang, Bern.

Bethell, G. and G. Kaufmane (2005), “Assessment and centralized examinations in Latvia”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, Vol. 12/3, pp. 301-314.

Busemeyer, M. and J. Vossiek (2015), “Reforming education governance through local capacity-building: A case study of the “Learning Locally” programme in Germany”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 113, OECD Publishing, Paris,

Cabinet of Ministers (2013), Noteikumi par valsts visparejas videjas izglitibas standartu, macibu prieksmetu standartiem un izglitibas programmu paraugiem [Regulations Regarding the State General Secondary Education Standard, Subject Standards and Sample Education Programmes], Regulation No. 281, Cabinet of Ministers, Republic of Latvia, Riga,

Cabinet of Ministers (2010), Guidelines for the Optimisation of the Network of Vocational Education Institutions 2010-2015 (Informative Part), Cabinet Order No. 5, Cabinet of Ministers, Republic of Latvia, Riga, No._5_-_Guidelines_-_Optimisation_of_the_Network_of_Vocational_ Education_Institutions.doc.

Cabinet of Ministers (2009), Concept “Promotion of Interest in Vocational Education and Participation of Social Partners in Assuring the Quality of Vocational Education”, Cabinet of Ministers, Republic of Latvia, Riga, Promotion_of_Interest_in_Vocational_Education_and...doc.

Cabinet of Ministers (2000), Noteikumi par valsts profesionalas videjas izglitibas standartu un valsts arodizglitibas standartu [Regulations

Regarding the State Vocational Secondary Education Standard and the State industrial Education Standard], Regulation No. 211, adopted 27 June 2000, Cabinet of Ministers, Republic of Latvia, Riga, php?id=8533.

Cachia, R. et al. (2010), Creative Learning and Innovative Teaching: Final Report of the Study on Creativity and Innovation in Education in EU Member States, JRC Scientific and Technical Reports, institute for Prospective Technologies,

Canning, R. (2012), “Reconceptualising vocational education: The transition from powerful to useful knowledge”, in Pilz, M. (ed.), The Future of Vocational Education and Training in a Changing World, Springer, Dordecht.

Carnoy, M., T. Khavenson and A. ivanova (2015), “Using TiMSS and PiSA results to inform educational policy: A study of Russia and its neighbours”, COMPARE, Vol. 45/2, pp. 248-271.

Cedefop (2015), Vocational Education and Training in Latvia, Publications office of the European Union, Luxembourg, publications-and-resources/publications/4134.

Cedefop (2014), “Latvia: Present state of structural reforms in vocational education”, European Centre for the development of Vocational Training website, latvia-present-state-structural-reforms-vocational-education.

Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia (2015a), Statistical Yearbook of Latvia 2014, Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia, Riga, default/files/nr_01_latvijas_statistikas_gadagramata_2014_statistical_ yearbook_of_latvia_14_00_lv_en_0.pdf.

Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia (2015b), “iZG08. General full-time schools (at the beginning of the school year)”, Statistics Database, Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia,


8cc3-4035692c5fc8 (accessed 15 July 2015).

Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia (2015c), “iZG13. Enrolment in general evening schools by grades (at the beginning of the school year)”, Statistics Database, Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia, pxweb/en/Sociala/Sociala ikgad __izgl/iZ0130.px/?rxid=a79839fe-11ba- 4ecd-8cc3-4035692c5fc8 (accessed 15 July 2015).

Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia (2013), Apsekojuma “Pieauguso izglitiba” rezultati ” [Main Results of Adult Education Survey], Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia, Riga, nr_23_apsekojuma_pieauguso_izglitiba_rezultati_13_00_lv_en_0.pdf.

CSCC (2012), National Development Plan 2014-2020, Cross-Sectoral Coordination Centre, Riga, dokumenti/NDP2020_English_Final.pdf.

Daija, Z., G. Kinta and B. Ramina (2014), Latvia: VET in Europe: Country Report 2014, ReferNet, 2014.pdf.

De Rick, K. (2008), “Costs and benefits of apprenticeships in the lowest track of VET”, in P. Schlogl et al. (eds.) (2008), Situated Competence Development Through Innovative Apprenticeships: The Role of Different Stakeholders, Conference Proceedings of the International Network on Innovative Apprenticeship, Vienna, 1-2 February 2008.

Deissinger, T. et al. (eds.) (2013), Hybrid Qualifications: Structures and Problems in the Context of European VET Policy, Peter Lang, Bern.

Desjardins, R. and K. Rubenson (2013), “Participation patterns in adult education: The role of institutions and public policy frameworks in resolving coordination problems”, European Journal of Education, Vol. 48/2,

Dufaux, S. (2012), “Assessment for qualification and certification in upper secondary education: A review of country practices and research evidence”, OECD Working Papers, No.83, OeCd Publishing, Paris, http://

Dumont, H., D. Istance and F. Benavides (eds.) (2010), The Nature of Learning: Using Research to Inspire Practice, Educational Research and Innovation, OECD Publishing, Paris,

EAEA (2011), Country Report on Adult Education in Latvia, European Association for Education of Adults, Helsinki, ae-in-europe/latvia_country-report-on-adult-education-in-latvia.pdf.

EC/EACEA/Eurydice (2012), Developing Key Competences at School in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities for Policy, Eurydice Report, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

EQAVET (n.d.), “Introduction to the VET system in the Netherlands”, European Quality Assurance in Vocational Education and Training website, netherlands.aspx.

ETF (2013a), Work-Based Learning: Benefits and Obstacles. A Literature Review for Policy Makers and Social Partners in ETF Partner Countries, ETF (European Training Foundation), 76199725ED683BBC1257BE8005DCF99/$file/Work-based%20learning_ Literature%20review.pdf.

ETF (2013b), “Social partnership in vocational education and training”, Inform, Issue 15 April 2013, C1257B6C0056EB647$file/iNFQRM_15_Social%20partners.pdf.

ETUCE (2012), ETUCE School Leadership Survey Report: School Leadership in Europe: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities, European Trade Union Committee for Education, Brussels, images/attachments/SchoolLeadershipsurveyEN.pdf.

Eurobarometer (2011), “Attitudes towards vocational education and training”, Special Eurobarometer No. 369, European Commission, Brussels.

European Commission (2015), “Country report Latvia 2015”, Commission Staff Working Document, COM(2015) 85 final, europe2020/pdf/csr2015/cr2015_latvia_en.pdf.

European Commission (2012), Assessment of Key Competences in Initial Education and Training: Policy Guidance, SWD(2012) 371 final, European Commission, Strasbourg, EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52012SC0371&from=EN.

European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (2013), Education and Training in Europe 2020: Responses from the EU Member States, Eurydice Report, Eurydice, Brussels, documents/thematic_reports/163EN,pdf.

European Union (2014), “European area of skills and qualifications”, Special Eurobarometer, No. 417, European Union, public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_417_en.pdf.

Eurostat (2015a), “Lifelong learning - Percentage of adult population aged 25-64 participating in education and training”, Eurostat database, Eurostat gin=1&pcode=tesem250&language=en (accessed 15 July 2015).

Eurostat (2015b), “Share of adult population with upper secondary or tertiary education, age group 25-64”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, http://ec.europa. eu/eurostat/web/products-datasets/-/tesem240 (accessed 15 July 2015).

Eurostat (2015c), “Tertiary education graduates”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, itertc&lang=en (accessed 15 July 2015).

Eurostat (2015d), “Early leavers from education and training by sex and labour status”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, nui/ (accessed 15 July 2015).

Eurostat (2015e), “Participation rate in education and training by age”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, datasets/-/TRNG_AES_101 (accessed 15 July 2015).

Eurostat (2014a), “Participation/ enrolment in education by sex”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, do?dataset=educ_ipart_s&lang=en (accessed 15 July 2015).

Eurostat (2014b), “Teachers (ISCED 0-4) and academic staff (ISCED 5-6) by age and sex”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, eu/nui/, Eurostat database, (accessed 15 July 2015).

Eurostat (2014c), “Teaching staff”, Eurostat database, Eurostat, http://, Eurostat database, Eurostat (accessed 15 July 2015).

Falco, P. et al. (forthcoming), “Ethnicity and earnings in the Latvian labour market”, ELS Working Paper, oECD Publishing, Paris.

Fazekas, M. and S. Field (2013), A Skills Beyond School Review of Germany, oECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training, oECD Publishing, Paris,

Froy, F. and S. Giguere (2010), Breaking Out of Policy Silos: Doing More with Less, Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED), OECD Publishing, Paris,

Fuller, A. and L. Unwin (2012), “Banging on the door of the university: The complexities of progression from apprenticeship and other vocational programmes in England”, SKOPE Monograph, No. 14, SKOPE and the Centre for Learning and Life Chances in Knowledge Economies and Societies.

Great Schools Partnership (2013), “Authentic learning”, Glossary of Education Reform website,

Halasz, G. and A. Michel (2011), “Key competences in Europe: Interpretation, policy formulation and implementation”, European Journal of Education, Vol. 46/3, pp. 289-306.

Hazans, M. (2011), “Labour market integration in Latvia”, in M. Kahanec and K.F. Zimmermann (eds.), Ethnic Diversity in European Labour Markets, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham.

IMF (2013), IMF Country Report No. 13/29, IMF (International Monetary Fund), Washington, DC.

Kangro, A. and D. James (2008), “Rapid reform and unfinished business: The development of education in independent Latvia 1991-2007”, European Journal of Education, Vol. 43/4, pp. 547-561.

Le Metais, J. (2003), International Developments in Upper Secondary Education: Context, Provision and Issues, NCCA (National Council for Curriculum and Assessment), Dublin, upper2ndeducation.pdf.

Lehmann H. and A. Zaiceva (2015), “Key labour market trends in Latvia”, unpublished manuscript.

Lombardi, M.M. (2007), “Authentic learning for the 21st century: An overview”, ELI Paper, 1:2007, ELi (EDUCAUSE Learning initiative),

MoES (2015), “Country background report Latvia”, unpublished, Ministry of Education and Science, Riga.

MoES (2014), Education Development Guidelines 2014-2020, Ministry of Education and Science, Riga,

Musset P. and R. Castaneda Valle (2013), OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training: A Skills Beyond School Commentary of Iceland, OECD Publishing, Paris, ASkillsBeyondSchoolCommentaryOnIceland.pdf.

OECD (forthcoming), OECD Reviews of Labour Market and Social Policies: Latvia, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2015a), OECD Economic Surveys: Latvia 2015, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2015b), Investing in Youth: Latvia, Investing in Youth, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2014a), Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2014b), Skills beyond School: Synthesis Report, OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/9789264214682-en.

OECD (2014c), Teacher Remuneration in Latvia: An OECD Perspective, OECD Publishing, Paris, of%20Teacher%20Remuneration%20in%20Latvia_OPS_FINAL.pdf.

OECD (2013a), OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/9789264204256-en.

OECD (2013b), Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2013c), Innovative Learning Environments, Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/9789264203488-en.

OECD (2012a), Grade Expectations: How Marks and Education Policies Shape Students ’ Ambitions, PiSA, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi. org/10,1787/9789264187528-en.

OECD (2012b), Better Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives: A Strategic Approach to Skills Policies, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/9789264177338-en.

OECD (2010), Learning for Jobs, OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/9789264087460-en.

OECD (2007), Qualifications Systems: Bridges to Lifelong Learning, Education and Training Policy, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/9789264013681-en.

OECD (2004), Innovation in the Knowledge Economy: Implications for Education and Learning, Knowledge management, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2001), Reviews of National Policies for Education: Latvia 2001, OECD Publishing, Paris,

Nuffic (2014), The Latvian Education System Described and Compared with the Dutch System, Nuffic, latvia.pdf.

Pepper, D. (2011), “Assessing key competences across the curriculum - and Europe”, European Journal of Education, Vol. 46/3, pp. 335-353.

Pilz, M. (2012), “Modularisation of vocational training in Germany, Austria and Switzerland: Parallels and disparities in a modernisation process”, Journal of Vocational Education and Training, Vol. 64/2, pp. 169-183.

Rigas Turisma un Radosas Industrijas Tehnikums (n.d.), Rigas Turisma un Radosas Industrijas Tehnikums [Riga Technical School of Tourism and Creative Industry] website,

Sahlberg, P. (2007), Secondary Education in OECD Countries: Common Challenges, Differing Solutions, ETF, Turin, web.nsf/pages/Secondary_education_in_OECD_countries_-_common_ challenges,_differing_solutions.

Silova, I. et al. (2010), “Reconceptualising professional development of teacher education in post-Soviet Latvia”, Professional Development in Education, Vol. 36/1-2, pp. 357-371.

STEMNET (n.d.), “STEM Ambassadors”, STEMNET (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Network) website, ambassadors.

UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2015), “Distribution of enrolment by programme orientation”, UIS database, aspx?queryid=135 (accessed 15 July 2015).

VISC (2015), Eksamenu kartotaju skaits no absolventu skaita visparizglitojosajas skolas 2013.-2015. [The number of exam takers from the number of graduates in general education schools 2013-2015], VISC (National Centre for Education), Riga, eksameni/statistika.shtml.

Zumente, I. and K. Putrins (2011), “Skills mismatch in Latvian manufacturing sector”, SSE Riga Student Research Papers, 2011:7 (136), www.sseriga. edu/files/content/zumente_putrins_paper,pdf.

< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >