Monitoring and Evaluation of Biomaterials and their Performance In Vivo

One Monitoring and evaluation of the mechanical performance of biomaterials in vivo Nanostructured ceramicsI ntroductionTest methods for nanostructured ceramicsMicro/nanostructural evaluationNanostructured bioceramicsLow-temperature chemical bondingWhy nanostructures in chemically bonded ceramics?Nanostructures in the Ca aluminate-Ca phosphate systemApplication field of nanostructured bioceramicsDental applications including coating productsOrthopedic applicationsDrug delivery carrier applicationsConclusion and summaryAcknowledgmentsReferencesMonitoring degradation products and metal ions in vivoI ntroductionBiodegradable metals: state of the artThe metals and their alloysThe temporary functional implantsThe in vivo degradationIn vivo implantation study of biodegradable metalsCurrent in vivo techniques for monitoring degradationRadiographyUltrasonographyMicrocomputed tomographyMagnetic resonance imagingBlood evaluationHistological analysisProposed new in vivo monitoring techniquesMonitoring local changes surrounding an implantation siteMonitoring systemic changes in body fluidOff-clinic point-of-care implant monitoringConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencestwo Monitoring and evaluation of the biological response to biomaterials in vivoImaging biomaterial-associated inflammationI ntroductionNear-infrared fluorescence imagingInflammatory cell imagingMacromolecular protein imagingSmall molecule imagingChemiluminescence imagingBioluminescence imagingMagnetic resonance imagingConclusions and future perspectivesReferencesMonitoring fibrous capsule formationIntroductionFunctionsStructureJoint classificationFibrous capsule formationDiameters of single-polymer fibers and tissue responseMonitor capsule formation around soft tissueStrain gaugesGlucose monitoring in vivo through fluorescent hydrogel fibersCellular and molecular composition of fibrous capsules formed around silicone breast implantsCapsular contracture after two-stage breast reconstructionGraphene-based biosensor for future perspectivesReferencesMonitoring biomineralization of biomaterials in vivoI ntroductionBiomineralizationDisruption to the biomineralization process and tissue engineeringBiomaterials for the repair of mineralized tissueIn vitro characterization of biomineralizationHistologyMicroradiographyFluorescent microscopyInfrared spectrometry and Raman spectroscopyX-ray diffractionTransmission and scanning electron microscopyEnergy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and electron energy-loss spectroscopyAtomic force microscopyAtom probe tomographyIn vivo characterization of biomineralizationRadiographyUltrasoundPositron emission tomographyX-ray computed tomographyMagnetic resonance imagingOptical coherence tomographyFluorescent imagingRaman spectroscopyMultiphoton imagingFuture trendsConclusionsReferencesMeasuring gene expression changes on biomaterial surfacesI ntroductionMeasuring global gene expressionMeasuring specific gene expression patternsLocalizing the expression of genes of interestsConsiderations when measuring gene expressionAssumptions underlying mRNA analysisGene expression versus protein expressionAlternate RNA splicingPosttranslational modificationsUsing gene expression for analysis of cell response to biomaterialsExample 1: influence of biomaterials on osteogenic gene expression and mineralization in hPDL cellsChoosing an appropriate cell modelExperimental designGene expression analysisGene expression in a context of skin healingThe skin repair process and the three phases of wound healingInflammatory phaseProlifera tive phaseRemodeling phaseBiomaterials and their effect on wound healing: a practical exampleMethods for in vivo gene expression analysisFuture trends/conclusionsReferencesThree Monitoring and evaluation of functional biomaterial performance in vivoMonitoring and tracking metallic nanobiomaterials in vivoMetallic nanobiomaterialsGold nanoparticlesMagnetic iron oxide nanoparticlesMetallic nanobiomaterials for monitoring and tracking in vivoTracking cellular regenerationBiodistribution monitoring of metallic nanobiomaterials to target tissueMetallic nanobiomaterials for monitoring inflamed tissueBiodistribution and elimination of metallic nanobiomaterialsBiodistribution and elimination of gold nanoparticles in vivoBiodistribution and elimination of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in vivoConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesHigh-resolution imaging techniques in tissue engineeringI ntroductionPhase contrast microscopyGeneralQuantitative phase imagingConfocal microscopyGeneralConfocal reflectance microscopyConfocal florescence microscopyMultiphoton microscopyGeneralTwo-photon fluorescence microscopySecond harmonic generation microscopyOptical coherence tomographyGeneralStructural imagingPolarization sensitive OCTOptical coherence elastographyDoppler optical coherence tomographySpeckle variance optical coherence tomographyPhotoacoustic microscopyGeneralAcoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopyOptical resolution photoacoustic microscopyRaman spectroscopyGeneralCell analysis with Raman spectroscopyBiomaterial analysis with Raman spectroscopyMultimodality imagingPerspectivesConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesMagnetic resonance imaging monitoring of cartilage tissue engineering in vivoI ntroductionCartilageCartilage tissue engineeringCellsScaffoldSignaling molecules and growth factorsGrowth conditionsAnimal models in cartilage tissue engineeringTissue assessmentMagnetic resonance imagingMagnetic resonance imaging assessment of tissueengineering cartilage in vivoFuture directionsReferencesNoninvasive optical imaging of stem cell differentiation in biomaterials using photonic crystal surfacesI ntroductionMotivation for noninvasive optical imaging of stem cells in vitro: adhesion phenotyping of stem cell differentiationMaterial-based approaches to regulate stem cell fate decisions in vitroChallenges associated with in vitro control of stem cell fate decisionsAdhesion phenotyping of stem cellsNoninvasive optical imaging as a potential new tool of stem cell characterizationHistory: optical imaging of cells using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy (PCEM)Basic principles of PCEMOptical imaging of live cells using PCEM (Cunningham group publications)PCEM imaging of stem cell differentiationConclusions and future outlookAcknowledgmentsReferences
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