Test methods for nanostructured ceramics

As early as 1946, Professor Powers [5] proposed that chemically bonded ceramics, specifically Ca silicate hydrates, ought to have an average crystal size of approximately 14 nm, based on BET measurements, i.e., based on the surface area measurement of dried cements. However, at that time the microscopes did not have efficient resolution to detect this. Approximately 50 years later the first actual micro/nanopictures of chemically bonded ceramics were presented [6], all of which demonstrated that the proposal of Professor Powers was right.

Monitoring and Evaluation of Biomaterials and their Performance in vivo. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100603-0.00001-8

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Table 1.1 Classification of ceramics and examples of bioceramics

Ceramics - classification

Examples of bioceramics

Traditional ceramics

Dental porcelain, (K2O-Al2O3-SiO2)

Special ceramics

Al-, Zr, and Ti-oxides

Glass

Bioactive glasses (Na2O-CaO-P2O5-SiO2)

Glass ceramics

Apatite (CaO-P2O5-H2O), Wollastonite (CaO-SiO2), Li-silicate based (Li2O-SiO2) and Leucite-based (K2O-Al2O3-SiO2)

Chemically bonded ceramics

Phosphates, aluminates, silicates, and sulfates

Table 1.2 Chemically bonded bioceramic systems

Group/name

Basic system

Calcium silicates

CaO-SiO2-H2O

Calcium aluminates

CaO-Al2O3-H2O

Calcium phosphates

CaO-P2O5-H2O

Calcium sulfates

CaO-SO3-H2O

Calcium carbonates

CaO-CO2

 
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