Monitoring degradation products and metal ions in vivo

D. Paramitha1, M.F. Ulum2, A. Purnama1, D.H.B. Wicaksono3'4,

D. Noviana2, H. Hermawan1

'Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada; 2Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia; 3University of Technology of Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia; 4Swiss-German University, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia

I ntroduction

Along with the advances in biomedical science and technology, biomaterials and medical implants are evolving toward a direction where they are no longer required to be inert but actively interact with the living implantation sites [1,2]. The development of bioactive biomaterials is evident in all classes of traditional materials (metals, polymers, ceramics, and composites) for use as implants to tissue engineering supports [3,4]. One of the recent advances in metallic biomaterials is the development of biodegradable metals. These metals bear a concept where instead of keeping them inert, they are purposely designed to degrade within the in vivo setting [5,6]. Implants made of these metals are expected to corrode gradually in vivo, with an appropriate host response elicited by released corrosion products, then dissolve completely upon assisting tissue healing of temporary clinical problems [7].

Proposing biodegradable metal implants certainly opposes the established paradigm of inert metallic biomaterials. The released corrosion products and metal ions may disturb the local and systemic physiological equilibrium of the implanted host. Therefore the biosafety of each kind of degradation product has to be carefully evaluated and an insight into the in vivo monitoring of degradation products and released metal ions is essentially needed. This chapter introduces the state of the art of biodegradable metals, discusses the current in vivo implantation and monitoring techniques of biodegradable metal implants, and proposes new techniques for monitoring degradation products and metal ions in vivo.

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