Graphene-based biosensor for future perspectives

Graphene nano structure (GN) and its related derivatives have attracted the interest of bio- science/biotechnologies [21-24] because of their physiochemical and electric-electronic properties. Particularly, these exceptional values include high surface area (2630m2/g)

Table 4.1 Properties of graphene compared with other carbonaceous materials

Graphene

Carbon

nanotube

Fullerene

Graphite

Dimensions

2

1

0

3

Hybridization

sp2

Mostly sp2

Mostly sp2

sp2

Tenacity

Flexible, elastic

Flexible, elastic

Elastic

Flexible,

nonelastic

Hardness

Highest (for single layer)

High

High

High

Electrical

conductivity

(S/cm)

~2000

Structure-

dependent

10-10

Anisotropic: 2-3x104

Experimental SSA (m2/g)

~1500

~1300

80-90

~10-20

Thermal

conductivity

(W/m/K)

4840-5300

3500

0.4

Anisotropic:

1500-2000

[25], excellent electrical conductivity (1738 S/m) [26], strong mechanical strength (about 1100 GPa) [27], good thermal conductivity (5000W/m/K) [28], high charge carrier mobility (about 10,000cm2 V—1 s—1) [29], good optical transparency (~97.7%) [30], and ease of biological as well as chemical functioning of graphene [31]. It is really a great opportunity to design a graphene-based sensor for wide application in the biomedical field due to its physiochemical properties [32]. A summary of the key properties of GN compared to its related carbon materials has been provided in Table 4.1 [33].

Herein, the overview of the applications of GN in biomedical fields are briefed, and it is an updated comprehensive work to those described in the reviews mentioned earlier, rather than an attempt to give a systematic and detailed review of this field. Graphene is accepted for different biosensing applications including DNA, glucose, hemoglobin (Hb), and cholesterol biosensors, drug and gene delivery, and cancer therapy. So graphene has potential applications in tissue engineering and fibrous capsule monitoring [34].

 
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