Biodistribution and elimination of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in vivo

Similar to GNPs, the biodistribution of MINPs relies on size, shape, and surface property. Yang et al. (2015) have recently investigated the impact of size of MINPs on biodistribution. This group evaluated the biodistribution of MINPs coated with a carboxyl group. The sizes of MINPs in their evaluation were 10, 20, 30, and 40 nm. After tail-vein injection in mice for 1 day, they found that 10 nm MINPs coated with a carboxyl group were highly taken up in the liver. In contrast, larger sizes of MINPS coated with a carboxyl group were highly accumulated in the spleen. Compared to GNPs, it was also reported that there was a high accumulation of 10 nm GNPs coated with PEG in the liver (Zhang et al., 2011). These results implied that although these particles were made from different metals and had different zeta potentials, the size of these metal nanoparticles seems to have a vital role on biodistribution. The amount of 10 nm MINPs in the liver was decreased after 7 days postinjection (Zhang et al., 2011). This decrease could occur from the elimination of the biological system that will be discussed in the next section.

As discussed previously for GNPs, MINPs could also be distributed to other organs and tissues such as the brain, heart, lungs, and kidneys, depending on the property of MINPs. The interaction between MINPs and plasma proteins in biological fluid is also another important factor that affects biodistribution of MINPs. Unlike GNPs, it is worth noting that the use of an external magnetic field could enhance the distribution of MINPs into target tissues or organs (Jimeno et al., 2012). However, it is necessary to investigate what will happen in the term of biodistribution after removal of an external magnetic field. Similar to GNPs, MINPs can be taken up by the liver and spleen, whereby both organs act as a key player in clearance pathways of particles in blood circulation. Generally, the mechanism of clearance of MINPS is the same with that of GNPs (Arami et al., 2015).

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