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Emerging nanotechnologies for diagnostics, drug delivery and medical devices


Therapeutic Applications of Polymeric MaterialsINTRODUCTIONPOLYMERS AS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMSPolymer—Drug ConjugatesPolymers in Ocular Drug DeliveryPolymers in Tissue EngineeringPOLYMERS IN IMAGING AND DIAGNOSISCONCLUSIONREFERENCESMultifunctional Micro- and NanoparticlesINTRODUCTIONMicroparticlesNanoparticlesTrojan MicroparticlesMultifunctional Micro- and NanoparticlesMICRO- AND NANOMATERIALS IN THE SYNTHESIS OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL CARRIERSLipid-Based Micro/NanocarriersLiposomeMicroemulsionsSolid-Lipid NanoparticlesPolymeric Micro/NanocarriersNatural PolymersChitosan-Based Micro/nanoparticlesSynthetic PolymersDendrimersNanomicellesMicro/NanogelInorganic Micro/NanocarriersQuantum DotsMagnetic NanoparticlesGold NanoparticlesTYPES OF FUNCTIONAL MOIETIESPeptidesProteins and AntibodiesNucleic AcidsCarbohydratesFluorescent DyesFUNCTIONALIZATION OF MICRO- AND NANOPARTICLESMethods of Conjugating Functional Moieties to Micro- and NanoparticlesREFERENCESNanomicelles in Diagnosis and Drug Delivery*INTRODUCTIONNANOMICELLE PREPARATIONAPPLICATION OF NANOMICELLE IN DIAGNOSTICS AND IMAGINGComputed TomographyMagnetic Resonance ImagingNear-Infrared Fluorescent ImagingAPPLICATION OF NANOMICELLES IN DRUG DELIVERYSolubilize Poorly Water-Soluble DrugsTargeted NanomicellesStimuli-Responsive NanomicellespH SensitiveTemperature SensitiveLight SensitiveUltrasound ResponsiveOthersMultifunctional Nanomicelle CarrierCONCLUSIONREFERENCESDiagnosis and Drug Delivery to the Brain: Novel StrategiesINTRODUCTIONBARRIERS FOR BRAIN DRUG DELIVERYPHYSIOLOGY OF THE BLOOD—BRAIN BARRIERConventional Strategies for Brain Drug DeliveryINVASIVE DRUG DELIVERY APPROACHESConvection Enhanced Drug DeliveryBBB Permeability ModulationUltrasound-Mediated BBB DisruptionOptical Modulation of Vascular PermeabilityNONINVASIVE DRUG DELIVERY APPROACHESChemical DerivatizationProdrug LipidizationTransporter-Targeted ProdrugsIntranasal Drug DeliveryNANOTECHNOLOGY APPROACHESNanoparticlesPolymeric NanoparticlesLipid NanoparticlesMagnetic NanoparticlesACTIVE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER TARGETING STRATEGIESAbsorptive-Mediated TranscytosisTransporter-Mediated TranscytosisReceptor-Mediated TranscytosisBlood—Brain Tumor Barrier Targeting StrategiesNOVEL NANOPLATFORMS AND DELIVERY VEHICLES FOR BBB TARGETINGMesenchymal Stem CellsMacrophagesExosomesDEVELOPMENT OF NEURODIAGNOSTIC NANOIMAGING PLATFORMSConventional Imaging ModalitiesOptical ImagingHybrid Imaging Using Optical ContrastCONCLUSIONACKNOWLEDGMENTREFERENCESEmerging Nanotechnology for Stem Cell TherapyINTRODUCTIONAPPLICATION OF NANOPARTICLES IN ISOLATION OF STEM CELLSAPPLICATION OF NANOPARTICLES IN STEM CELL TRACKINGROLE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN REGULATING MICROENVIRONMENT OF STEM CELLS: POTENTIAL ROLES IN TISSUE ENGINEERINGNANOPARTICLES AS MACROMOLECULAR DELIVERY SYSTEMS FOR STEM CELLSFUTURE PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES FACING THE FIELDREFERENCESNanoparticulate Systems for Therapeutic and Diagnostic ApplicationsINTRODUCTIONWHY NANOTECHNOLOGY AND NANOMEDICINE?TYPES OF NANOPARTICLES IN DRUG DELIVERYNonrigid NanoparticlesLiposomesLipid Film Hydration Method for Preparation of LiposomesDrug Loading Liposomes by the Passive Loading MethodPurification of Liposomes—Detergent Removal MethodsIn Vitro and In Vivo Studies Involving LiposomesChallenges Associated With LiposomesSolid Lipid NanoparticlesMethods to Prepare Solid Lipid NanoparticlesSolvent Emulsification—Evaporation MethodDrug Incorporation in Solid Lipid NanoparticlesChallenges Associated With Solid Lipid NanoparticlesStability of Solid Lipid NanoparticlesRigid NanoparticlesBiodegradable Polymeric NanoparticlesPreparation of Polymeric NanoparticlesLaboratory-Scale Preparation of Polymeric NanoparticlesLarge-Scale Production of NanoparticlesIn Vitro and In Vivo Studies Involving NanoparticlesChallenges Associated With Polymeric NanoparticlesCarbon Nanotubes and NanohornsIron NanoparticlesMethods of PreparationApplications of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Drug DeliveryCONCLUSIONREFERENCESPeptide and Protein-Based Therapeutic Agents INTRODUCTIONCHALLENGES WITH PEPTIDE AND PROTEIN THERAPEUTICSCHEMICAL MODIFICATIONSPEGylationGlycosylationMannosylationMICRO- AND NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR BIOLOGICS IN DRUG DELIVERYMicroparticles or MicrospheresNanoparticlesSolid Lipid NPCarbon NanotubeLiposomesAquasomesMicellesPROTEIN- AND PEPTIDE-BASED THERAPEUTICSTherapeutic ApplicationsCancerOcular DiseasesOther DiseasesDiagnostic ApplicationsMagnetic NanoparticlesCarbon Nanotubes and Gold NanoparticlesOther Protein/Peptide DiagnosticsCONCLUSIONREFERENCESNanotechnology in Intracellular Trafficking, Imaging, and Delivery of Therapeutic AgentsINTRODUCTIONNanotechnology in Intracellular TraffickingMECHANISMSClathrin-Mediated EndocytosisCaveolae-Mediated EndocytosisClathrin and Caveolae-Independent MechanismsRhoA-Mediated UptakeClathrin-Independent Carriers/Glycosylphosphotidylinositol- Anchored Protein Enriched Early EndosomalCompartments PathwayFlotillin-Mediated EndocytosisMACROPINOCYTOSISPhagocytosisDifferent Phases in Intracellular Trafficking of NanomaterialsEarly Endocytic VesiclesLate Endosomes—Multivesicular BodiesLysosomesIntracellular Trafficking of NanomaterialsMechanisms of Particle Uptake Into Cell NucleusImaging Technology for Intracellular Trafficking of NanostructuresConfocal MicroscopyQuantum Dots and Gold NanoparticlesGold NanoparticlesCONCLUSIONREFERENCESElectrospun Nanofibers in Drug Delivery: Fabrication, Advances, and Biomedical ApplicationsINTRODUCTIONProcess of ElectrospinningParameters Influencing the Electrospinning Process and Fiber CharacteristicsConcentrationPolymer Molecular WeightConductivityViscosityFlow RateApplied VoltageDistance Between the Needle Tip and CollectorEnvironmental Factors (Humidity and Temperature)Collector TypesSTIMULI-RESPONSIVE NANOFIBERS IN DRUG DELIVERY APPLICATIONSpH-Responsive SystemsLight-Activated SystemsThermoresponsive SystemsUltrasound-Responsive SystemsEnzyme-Responsive SystemsOxidative Stress—Responsive SystemsCarbohydrate-Responsive SystemsMultiresponsive SystemsChallenges in Stimuli-Responsive Drug Delivery Applications of NanofibersAPPLICATIONS OF ELECTROSPUN NANOFIBERSElectrospun Nanofibers in Tissue EngineeringSkin Tissue EngineeringBone Tissue EngineeringCardiac Tissue EngineeringNerve Tissue EngineeringElectrospun Nanofibers Applications in DentistryElectrospun Nanofibers Application in Ocular InjuriesElectrospun Nanofibers in Drug DeliveryTransdermal Drug Delivery SystemCancer TherapyElectrospun Nanofibers in Biomedical ApplicationBiosensor and ImmunoassayCONCLUSIONREFERENCESNanosystems for Diagnostic Imaging, Biodetectors, and BiosensorsINTRODUCTIONNANOSYSTEMS AS PLATFORMS FOR ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC IMAGINGIron Oxide NanoparticlesQuantum DotsGold NanoparticlesCarbon NanotubesSilica NanoparticlesLiposomesNanomicellesDendrimersDIAGNOSTIC IMAGING WITH NANOSYSTEMSMagnetic Resonance ImagingOptical ImagingNuclear ImagingComputed TomographyUltrasoundBIOLOGICAL SENSORSGlucose SensorsImmobilized Enzyme Film Glucose BiosensorsNanoparticle/Carbon Nanotube—Based Glucose BiosensorsMechanism of Implantable BiosensorNonenzymatic Glucose BiosensorsMechanism of Nonenzymatic Glucose BiosensorsMicrocantileverMechanism of Microcantilever DeflectionMicrocantilevers as Cancer DetectorsMicrocantilevers in Coronary Heart DiseasesMicrocantilevers in Nucleotide PolymorphismsBiochips in MicrocantileversNanocantileversCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESMicro- and Nanotechnology-Based Implantable Devices and BionicsINTRODUCTIONBIOCOMPATIBILITY ISSUES OF IMPLANTSMICROTECHNOLOGY-BASED IMPLANTABLE DEVICES AND BIONICSSensing SystemsDrug Delivery DevicesNANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED IMPLANTABLE DEVICES AND BIONICSSensing SystemsDrug Delivery DevicesCONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVESREFERENCESSolid Lipid Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery: Opportunities and ChallengesINTRODUCTIONCOMPONENTS OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLESLipidSurfactantSOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLE PRODUCTION TECHNIQUESHigh-Pressure HomogenizationHot Homogenization TechniqueCold Homogenization TechniqueMicroemulsion-Based TechniqueSolvent Emulsification—Evaporation TechniqueSolvent Displacement TechniqueEmulsification—Diffusion TechniqueDRUG-LOADING CAPACITY OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLESDRUG INCORPORATION MODELS OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLESDRUG RELEASE FROM SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLESInfluence of TemperatureInfluence of SurfactantsAPPLICATIONS OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES FOR DRUG DELIVERYRoutes of Administration of SLNsOral AdministrationParenteral RouteTopical AdministrationPulmonary AdministrationRectal AdministrationOcular AdministrationApplication of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Delivery of Hydrophilic Drugs: PEG CoatingSLNs as Potential Carriers of Anticancer AgentsSignificance of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as Anticancer CarriersIncorporation of Hydrophilic Anticancer Actives in Solid Lipid NanoparticlesSTABILITY CONCERNS OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLESInfluence of Shear Forces and Lipid ConcentrationInfluence of the Surface of the Packing MaterialProperties of the Lipids: SLNs Versus Bulk MaterialStability and Storage ConditionsGelling Tendency: Temperature Versus Shear ForcesPhysical StabilityPhysical Stability due to Changes in LipidsGelationLipid ModificationPhysical Stability due to Changes in Colloidal Lipid DispersionOstwald RipeningCoalescenceChemical StabilityPhospholipid StabilityTriglycerides StabilityTOXICITY ASPECTS OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLESDIAGNOSTIC APPLICATIONS OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLESIN VIVO FATE OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLESCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESMicroneedles in Drug DeliveryINTRODUCTIONSKIN STRUCTURE AND BARRIER TO TRANSDERMAL DELIVERYMICRONEEDLESSolid MicroneedlesHollow MicroneedlesCoated MicroneedlesDissolving MicroneedlesHydrogel-Forming MicroneedlesSELECTION OF MICRONEEDLE DESIGNS FOR APPLICATIONSCOMMERCIAL MICRONEEDLE DEVICESREFERENCESNanotechnology-Based Medical and Biomedical Imaging for DiagnosticsINTRODUCTIONFLUORESCENCE-BASED IMAGING AND DIAGNOSTICSNANOCARRIERS IN BIOLOGICAL IMAGINGInorganic NanomaterialsMagnetic NanoparticlesGold NanoparticlesSilica NanoparticlesQuantum DotsSurface-Enhanced Raman ScatteringLipid NanocarriersGadolinium NanoparticlesRadiolabeled NanoparticlesRadiolabeled LiposomesRadiolabeled Iron Oxide NanoparticlesGold NanoparticlesGold NanoshellsRadiolabeled NanomicellesPHOTOACOUSTIC AND ULTRASOUND IMAGINGCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESDrug and Gene Delivery Materials and DevicesINTRODUCTIONADVANCES IN DELIVERY SYSTEMSNanomaterialsNano Drug Delivery SystemsGENE DELIVERYViral Vector ApproachNonviral Vector ApproachPhysical ApproachGENE THERAPY PRODUCTSCONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONACKNOWLEDGMENTREFERENCES
 
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