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Solid-Lipid Nanoparticles

Solid-lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are submicron colloidal carriers composed of a single lipid core matrix that is solid at body temperature, and is coated with a surfactant acting as stabilizer [43—45]. These structures are more stable than liposomes or emulsions. As a result of the relatively inflexible core lipids that are solid at body temperature, SLNs are rigid and can have either positive or negative charge, with average sizes ranging between 50 and 1000 nm [38]. Biodegradable, biocompatible, and physiological lipids are generally utilized to prepare these nanoparticles, hence toxicity associated with the polymeric nanoparticles are minimized. Oral absorption and bioavailability of several drugs have been improved by formulating them into drug-loaded SLN particles [46]. SLNs can be functionalized with various materials, such as CS to improve oral bioavailability ofin- sulin [47]; apolipoprotein E, which is recognized by low-density lipoprotein receptors on blood—brain barrier for targeted drug delivery into the brain [48]; polylysine—heparin for tenofovir (vaginal microbicide) delivery for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention [49]; and anti-CD64 antibody that specifically targets macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis along with in vivo imaging [50].

 
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