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FUNCTIONALIZATION OF MICRO- AND NANOPARTICLES

Functionalization is carried out to improve the performance of micro- and nanoparticles by attaching on the surface or integrating within the structure one or more functional groups. Some basic components of functionalization in the field of biomedicine include diagnostic agent, targeting ligand, spacer group, and imaging and therapeutic agents.

Micro- and nanocarriers have been functionalized with various chemical functional groups such as thiols, disulfides, amines, nitriles, carboxylic acids, phosphines and biomacromolecules [109—114]. Surface functionalization of micro- and nanoparticles can occur by two ways, one is functionalization with biological (macro) molecules such as peptides, carbohydrates, lipids, fatty acids, proteins, and nucleic acids (genes, oligomers, aptamers, and ribozymes/DNAzymes) and the other is functionalization with specific ligands such as mono- or oligosaccharides (carbohydrates), folate receptor, Abs, and biotin [51].

 
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