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Iron Nanoparticles

Iron oxide nanoparticles/magnetic nanoparticles have the potential to revolutionize current imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. Magnetic nanoparticles are

Table 6.4 Molecular structures of the carbon nanotube conjugated with different therapeutic agents [117]

Compounds

Application

Cell internalization [118—120] Intracellular trafficking [118,119] Cell viability [120]

Plasmid DNA delivery [120,121]

Cell internalization [118,122,123] Intracellular trafficking [118,122,123] Cell viability [118,122,123]

Cell internalization [118]

Cell internalization [118,124] Cell viability [124]

Continued

Table 6.4 Molecular structures of the carbon nanotube conjugated with different therapeutic agents [117]—cont'd

Compounds

Application

Antibiotic delivery [124]

Cell internalization [125] Cell viability [125] Anticancer delivery [125]

Immunogenic activity [126,127]

Immunogenic activity [127]

Reprinted with permission.

CXR4 expression levels after treating with single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)—small interference RNA (siRNA) and liposomal siRNA with appropriate controls [128]. (Reprinted with permission.)

Figure 6.20 CXR4 expression levels after treating with single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)—small interference RNA (siRNA) and liposomal siRNA with appropriate controls [128]. (Reprinted with permission.)

Inhibition of pre-established HN12 head and neck squamous carcinoma cells tumor growth by single walled nanotube-cisplatin-epidermal growth factor bioconjugates

Figure 6.21 Inhibition of pre-established HN12 head and neck squamous carcinoma cells tumor growth by single walled nanotube-cisplatin-epidermal growth factor bioconjugates. The unguided nanotube bioconjugate was labelled as "control" and the targeted nanotube bioconjugate was labelled as "positive" [116]. (Reprinted with permission.)

composed of a magnetic core (iron oxide or magnetite) and a biocompatible polymeric shell (dextran or starch) (Fig. 6.22). These nanoparticles have superior targeting abilities compared with other nanoparticle systems due to their responsive properties to magnetic waves. Magnetic nanoparticles are assumed to possess benefits beyond the enhanced permeability and retention effect, which is a common passive targeting technique in case of tumor-targeted nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have applications in

Typical iron oxide/magnetic nanoparticle

Figure 6.22 Typical iron oxide/magnetic nanoparticle.

immune assays, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and as MRI contrasting agents.

The iron oxide core in the magnetic nanoparticle contains magnetite (Fe3O4) or maghemite (gFe2O3) or a nonstoichiometric composition of both. Magnetic nanoparticles are synthesized by different methods including traditional solution-based wet chemistry, laser pyrolysis, aqueous coprecipitation, and high-temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors.

 
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