Menu
Home
Log in / Register
 
Home arrow Engineering arrow Emerging nanotechnologies for diagnostics, drug delivery and medical devices
Source

Ocular Diseases

Diseases associated with the posterior segment of the eye such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular edema, diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, and retinal vein occlusion may be treated with protein therapeutics. Topical administration of macromolecules for treatment of back of the eye diseases is challenging due to large molecular weight of the proteins in addition to physical and chemical barriers of the eye [110]. As a result, most of PPTs are administered through intravitreal route, which provides specific and targeted treatment for retinal diseases [111]. Over the past few years anti-VEGFs such as bevacizumab and ranibizumab, VEGF trap aflibercept, and aptamer pegaptanib have been indicated for the treatment of ocular neovascular diseases [112—115].

Apart from anti-VEGF drugs, which have shown promising results, new peptide and protein drugs for ocular diseases are emerging. Antisense oligonucleotides for the treatment of ocular diseases are in horizon. Antisense oligonucleotide (ODN17) delivered by cationic nanoemulsion directed at VEGF-R2 for the treatment of corneal neovascularization was investigated by Haqiqit et al. Inhibition of corneal neovascularization was observed in animal models treated with ODN17 nanoemulsion after topical or subconjunctival administration [116]. In retinopathy of prematurity mouse model, a 64% of vitreal neovascularization inhibition was observed after being treated with ODN17 nanoemulsion [116]. These results suggest that antisense oligonucleotides can provide therapeutic effect in ocular diseases. siRNA can be used to inhibit specific gene expression. siRNA can be beneficial to silence genes that are associated with ocular diseases. A phase 1 dose escalation study was performed with siRNA targeting RTP801 gene in patients with AMD [117]. Results indicated that the siRNA (PF-045237655) was well tolerated over a 24-month period after single intravitreal injection. Also, no dose limiting toxicities were observed [117]. These reports confirm that siRNA is safe and well tolerated in patients with AMD. Gene delivery for ocular diseases has gained attention in recent years. Local distribution, transgene duration, and safety of adenovirus carrying luciferase gene were evaluated by Liu et al. Luciferase expression was induced for 64 days following subconjunctival injection [118]. Moreover, adenovirus was dispersed across anterior and posterior eye [118]. Therefore gene delivery may be a promising therapeutic strategy for ocular diseases.

 
Source
Found a mistake? Please highlight the word and press Shift + Enter  
< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >
 
Subjects
Accounting
Business & Finance
Communication
Computer Science
Economics
Education
Engineering
Environment
Geography
Health
History
Language & Literature
Law
Management
Marketing
Mathematics
Political science
Philosophy
Psychology
Religion
Sociology
Travel