Nanotechnology in Intracellular Trafficking, Imaging, and Delivery of Therapeutic Agents

Animikh Ray, Ashim K. Mitra

University of Missouri—Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, United States

Contents

  • 1. Introduction 169
  • 1.1 Nanotechnology in Intracellular Trafficking 171
  • 2. Mechanisms 171
  • 2.1 Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis 171
  • 2.2 Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis 172
  • 2.3 Clathrin and Caveolae-Independent Mechanisms 172
  • 2.4 RhoA-Mediated Uptake 173
  • 2.5 Clathrin-Independent Carriers/Glycosylphosphotidylinositol-Anchored Protein Enriched Early

Endosomal Compartments Pathway 173

  • 2.6 Flotillin-Mediated Endocytosis 173
  • 3. Macropinocytosis 173
  • 3.1 Phagocytosis 174
  • 3.2 Different Phases in Intracellular Trafficking of Nanomaterials 174
  • 3.3 Early Endocytic Vesicles 174
  • 3.4 Late Endosomes—Multivesicular Bodies 174
  • 3.5 Lysosomes 177
  • 3.6 Intracellular Trafficking of Nanomaterials 178
  • 3.7 Mechanisms of Particle Uptake Into Cell Nucleus 179
  • 3.8 Imaging Technology for Intracellular Trafficking of Nanostructures 180
  • 3.8.1 ConfocalMicroscopy 180
  • 3.8.2 Quantum Dots and Gold Nanoparticles 181
  • 3.8.3 Gold Nanoparticles 183
  • 4. Conclusion 185

References 185

 
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