Cargoes such as nanoparticles usually undertake the clathrin-mediated pathway for translocation across plasma membrane (PM) . Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) begins with accumulation of clathrin from cytoplasm . These clathrins are sequestered at regions ofPM referred as clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). This is followed by invagination of CCPs forming separate vesicles that are then detached from the PM to form clathrin- coated vesicles. There are adapter proteins that are responsible for molecular signals that lead to the formation of clathrin-coated vehicles. These adapter proteins interact with numerous regulatory proteins such as AP180 and epsin that control formation of clathrin-coated pits, detachment of vesicles from PM, and the different interactions of these vesicles with cytoskeleton .
Figure 8.1 Targeting ligands, surface charge, shape, and other parameters critical for nanoformulations such as dendrimers, micelles, and nanoparticles to be delivered to their intracellular compartments. (Published with permission from the Royal Society of Chemistry.)