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Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis

Caveolae are protrusion in PM with a size range of 50—80 nm [4]. These are responsible for uptake of nanocarriers in a clathrin-independent pathway. Structurally caveolae consists of cholesterol, sphingolipids, Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, and integral membrane proteins caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 [5,6]. Particles having size of <100 nm have been observed to utilize pathway mediated by caveolae to gain entry into the intracellular compartment. Finally, uptake of these nanocarriers is completed by detachment of the vesicles from PM, such as CME [7,8].

Clathrin and Caveolae-Independent Mechanisms

Pathways that are independent of clathrin and caveolae is an active field of research. There is no consensus regarding which pathways are dependent and independent of clathrin and caveolae. However, a majority of scientists agree that broadly they can be classified into three pathways. The commonly accepted clathrin-, caveolae-, and macropinocytosis- independent pathways are RhoA-mediated uptake, clathrin-independent carriers

(CLIC)/glycosylphosphotidylinositol-anchored protein enriched early endosomal compartments (GEEC) pathways, and flotillin-mediated endocytosis [9].

 
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