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Process of Electrospinning

Electrospinning utilizes electrostatic forces as a driving force to generate polymeric fibers [5]. A typical electrospinning system is described in Fig. 9.2. This system consists of four major components: (1) a glass syringe containing a polymer spinneret, which is connected to a high voltage supply and can be a needle or a coaxial that can generate core—shell NFs; (2) a high-voltage power supply, which injects finite polarity charge (typically positive) into the polymer solution; (3) a syringe pump that forces the polymer solution through the spinneret; and (4) a grounded collector, which can be a sheet of aluminum or a rotating drum collector [6].

As the pump plunger pushes the syringe, a polymer solution droplet is formed at the tip of the spinneret. Subsequently electric charges can cause the power supply extended into the polymer solution via the metallic needle. When a sufficiently high electrical potential is applied to the droplet, it assumes electrical charges. The reciprocal of charges repulsion creates a force that is opposite to the surface tension of the polymer droplet. At a critical voltage, the electrical force of the charges overcomes the force due to surface tension. This energy causes the spherical droplet to elongate and assume a conical shape

Applications of electrospun nanofibers

Figure 9.1 Applications of electrospun nanofibers.

known as Taylor cone. It is followed by the eruption of a jet from the tip of the Taylor cone. The jet of the polymer solution flows in the direction of the electric field toward the grounded collector. During this process, charges migrate to the surface of the jet. Electrostatic repulsive force leads to the whipping of the jet, which allows the polymer chains to stretch in the solutions. As a result, the jet is elongated and the diameter is further reduced. The solvent of the polymer is evaporated, so that the fiber is deposited on the grounded collector [7—9].

 
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