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Viscosity

The fiber diameter and morphology are strongly affected by the viscosity ofthe polymer solution during the electrospinning process. No continuous fiber formation will be possible with very low solution viscosity and with very high viscosity it is difficult to create jet injection from polymer solution. Thus an optimal viscosity ofpolymer solution is required for an effective electrospinning process [12].

Flow Rate

The flow rate of the polymer solution controls the diameter and morphology of the fibers. With higher flow rates, the diameter of the fibers increases accordingly. If the flow rate is extremely high, the solvent may not evaporate completely during the transfer from the spinneret to the collector. It may lead to beaded morphologies [14]. Several studies were undertaken to establish any relationship between solution flow rate and fiber morphology and diameter. High flow rates may also result in beaded fibers because of the insufficient drying time.

Applied Voltage

The voltage is one ofthe most important factors among the electrospinning process variables. The charged jets ejected only from the Taylor cone can apply voltage higher than the critical voltage. Higher voltage results in higher electrostatic repulsive force on the liquid jet, which favors the narrowing of fiber diameter [13].

 
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