Electrospun Nanofibers Applications in Dentistry

Electrospinning is an excellent technique for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds in dentistry. A variety of materials including natural polymers (silk, collagen, chitosan), synthetic polymers (PVA, polydioxanone), and nanocomposites (HAp blends) have been electrospun for tissue engineering of oral and dental tissues, i.e., pulp dentin complex, guided tissue regeneration for periodontium, caries prevention, modification of resin composites, implant surface modification, and cartilage regeneration. The major advantage ofelectrospinning is its ability to produce complex geometry ofnanofibrous scaffolds that can be used for dentin-pulp complex regeneration. The goal ofdentin-pulp complex regeneration is to restore the mechanical and physical attributes of the tooth structure. Electrospun NF has been of interest for the repair of defects in periodontal tissues such as alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and cementum. Biodegradable polymers such as collagen, PLGA, PLA, and PCL possess the disadvantage of poor porosity, surface alignment, and lack of biological functionality. To overcome these drawbacks, significant research has been conducted on electrospun NF, which provides enhanced porosity, cell attachment, and fiber alignment to use in periodontal regeneration. Although electrospinning has added exciting new prospects in the field of periodontal tissue regeneration, much work is needed to validate the application of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds in the clinical stage with respect to mechanical and biological properties as well as the underlying mechanisms [75].

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