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SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLE PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

For several years, solid lipids have been used in the form of pellets to achieve delayed drug release [3]. In the early 1980s, Speiser and coworkers developed spray-dried and congealed micropellets [10] and nanopellets of lipids for oral administration [11]. Nanopellets developed by Speiser [11] often contained high amounts of microparticles. Domb produced lipospheres by high shear mixing or ultrasonication [12]. But both the nanopellets and lipospheres, produced by Speiser and Domb, respectively, were contaminated by microparticles. Since the last decade, several scientists have realized the potential of SLN technology, and their research efforts have brought about improvement in SLN synthesis.

High-Pressure Homogenization

Muller and Lucks were the first to prepare SLNs by applying HPH technique [13]. Ho- mogenizers have been used commercially for several years now for the production of nanoemulsions for parenteral nutrition fluids such as Intralipid and Lipofundin [14]. Thus scaling up presents fewer problems when compared with other techniques, and it is highly cost-effective. Naturally, a lot of research has been done by several research groups utilizing this method to produce better SLNs. A homogeneous dispersion with narrow size distribution is desirable to increase the physical stability of the aqueous dispersion. In this technique, the liquid is forced at a high pressure (100—2000 bar) through a narrow gap of few microns. The resulting high shear stress and cavitation forces decrease the particle size. If the particles localized at different positions in the dispersion volume experience different forces then the degree of particle disruption will vary. The two basic production methods to HPH are the hot and the cold homogenization techniques.

 
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