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Home arrow Engineering arrow Emerging nanotechnologies for diagnostics, drug delivery and medical devices
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Microneedles in Drug Delivery

Rubi Mahato

Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham Park, NJ, United States

Contents

  • 1. Introduction 331
  • 2. Skin Structure and Barrier to Transdermal Delivery 331
  • 3. Microneedles 333
  • 3.1 Solid Microneedles 334
  • 3.2 Hollow Microneedles 337
  • 3.3 Coated Microneedles 339
  • 3.4 Dissolving Microneedles 341
  • 3.5 Hydrogel-Forming Microneedles 343
  • 4. Selection of Microneedle Designs for Applications 346
  • 5. Commercial Microneedle Devices 346

References 349

INTRODUCTION

There is a need for a drug delivery system that can efficiently deliver the drug to the target site with minimum invasion and pain. Transdermal delivery can solve this problem to some extent since it has the advantage of avoidance of first-pass metabolism associated with oral route, and less or no painful delivery compared with injections. However, transdermal route has its own limitation due to the outer layer of skin, the stratum corneum (SC) that acts as a barrier and limits the permeation only to small lipophilic molecules.

Delivery of macromolecules across the skin is primarily mediated by hypodermic injection or intramuscular injection. These two routes possess several disadvantages, such as patient incompliance, needle phobia, pain, and accidental needle-stick injury. A novel strategy to overcome these limitations and problems is to use microneedles (MNs).

 
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