Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is commonly applied in biological studies and microanalysis with a laser beam [31]. A small amount of circulating tumor cells, RNA, nucleic acid, lipids, and proteins present in blood samples may be detected with SERS. Cancer diagnosis and nanoscale hexagonal columns (NHCs) can also be diagnosed with SERS [32—36]. Studies demonstrated that negatively charged silver NHCs can be applied in SERS. This technology can sense positively charged histone tails of the methylated cell-free DNA from patients with cancer [37]. Apart from silver NHCs, silicone amorphous nanomaterials have been utilized for biosensing applications with SERS [38].

SERS also provides single molecule detection by amplifying Raman signal intensity, which renders it suitable for multicolor imaging in multiplex detection in complex molecular studies [39—46]. Because of high sensitivity, this technique can be applied for early detection and quantification of hemozoin, which is an indicator of parasitemia levels in malarial patients (P. falciparum) [47]. Surface-enhanced spatially offset Raman spectroscopy has been utilized with SERS active nanoparticles. In vivo imaging of the skull is performed with non-invasive, real-time spectroscopic measurements of neurochemicals [48].

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