Table of Contents:


Long Name: Portuguese Republic

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Area: 35,672 sq. mi. (92,391 sq. km)

Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south

Population: 10,676,910

Population Growth Rate: 0.305%

Birth Rate (per 1,000): 10.45

Death Rate (per 1,000): 10.62

Life Expectancy: 78.04 years

Ethnic Groups: homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal

Religion: Roman Catholic 84.5%, other Christian 2.2%, other 0.3%, unknown 9%, none 3.9%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official - but locally used)

Literacy: 93.3%

Government Type: republic; parliamentary democracy

Capital: Lisbon

Independence: 1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)

GDP Per Capita: $21,800

Occupations: agriculture 10%, industry 30%, services 60%

Currency: euro (EUR)


Long Name: State of Qatar

Location: Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia

Area: 4,416 sq. mi. (11,437 sq. km)

Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel

Population: 824,789

Population Growth Rate: 1.093%

Birth Rate (per 1,000): 15.69

Death Rate (per 1,000): 2.47

Life Expectancy: 75.19 years

Ethnic Groups: Arab 40%, Indian 18%, Pakistani 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%

Religion: Muslim 77.5%, Christian 8.5%, other 14%

Languages: Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language

Literacy: 89%

Government Type: emirate Capital: Doha

Independence: 3 September 1971 (from United Kingdom)

GDP Per Capita: $87,600

Occupations: primarily industry Currency: Qatari rial (QAR)


Long Name: Romania

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Area: 91,699 sq. mi. (237,500 sq. km)

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Population: 22,246,862 Population Growth Rate: -0.136%

Birth Rate (per 1,000): 10.61

Death Rate (per 1,000): 11.84

Life Expectancy: 72.18 years

Ethnic Groups: Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4%

Religion: Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1%

Languages: Romanian 91% (official), Hungarian 6.7%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 1.2%

Literacy: 97.3%

Government Type: republic

Capital: Bucharest

Independence: 9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)

GDP Per Capita: $11,100

Occupations: agriculture 29.7%, industry 23.2%, services 47.1%

Currency: "new" leu (RON) was introduced in 2005; "old" leu (ROL) was phased out in 2006


Long Name: Russian Federation

Location: Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part of Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean

Area: 6,592,741 sq. mi. (17,075,200 sq. km)

Climate: ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions

Population: 140,702,096 Population Growth Rate: -0.474%

Birth Rate (per 1,000): 11.03

Death Rate (per 1,000): 16.06

Life Expectancy: 65.94 years

Ethnic Groups: Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1%

Religion: Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.), large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule

Languages: Russian, many minority languages

Literacy: 99.4%

Government Type: federation Capital: Moscow

Independence: 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

GDP Per Capita: $14,800

Occupations: agriculture 10.8%, industry 28.8%, services 60.5%

Currency: Russian ruble (RUB)

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