Evaluation of health promotion and disease prevention programs : improving population health through

IntroductionOverviewTarget AudiencesProgram Evaluation: A Trans-Disciplinary ProcessProgram Evaluation TermsPurposes of Program EvaluationThe Role of Program Evaluation or Evaluation Research in an OrganizationPlanning an Evaluation: Defining Realistic ObjectivesProfessional Competence in Program EvaluationCredentialing and Professional Preparation for HP-DP SpecialistsSystematic Reviews: Meta-Evaluation and Meta-AnalysisEvaluation PHASES: Documenting the Validity of ResultsPHASE 1 (Formative Evaluation) and PHASE 2 (Efficacy Evaluation): Evaluation ResearchPHASE 3 and 4: Program EvaluationInternal Validity to External Validity: The Enduring ChallengePractice-Based and Community-Based Participatory Research and Program EvaluationClinical Practice Guidelines for HP-DP and ManagementEvaluation PHASES: Translating HP-DP Science to Practice-Based EvidencePlanning and Evaluation Domains and StakeholdersEvaluability AssessmentScience DomainPolicy DomainEvaluation of HP-DP ProgramsScience-Policy-Practice Partnerships: Domain ConsilienceEvaluation Progress Review: The 1960s and 1970sEvaluation Progress Review: The 1980s and 1990sProcess Evaluation: Linking HP-DP Programs and ImpactEvaluation Progress Review: Objectives for the Nation and StatesHealthy Objectives for the Nation: 1990, 2000, 2010, 2020HP-DP 2020 Objectives for the NationA Global Health Progress Review: The Millennium Development Goals (2010)Millenium Development Goals Progress ReviewThe Health Promotion Movement and EvaluationThe Science-Policy-Practice Gap in Health Promotion and Population Health ScienceAn HP-DP Evaluation Paradigm ShiftProgram Evaluation Leadership: Future ChallengesPlanning an EvaluationThe Organizational Context for HP-DP ProgramsPhilosophy of the OrganizationProgram JustificationMission and Goals of the OrganizationThe Health Promotion Planning NetworkPRECEDE/PROCEED Planning ModelPhase i: Social AssessmentDiscussion GroupsNominal Group Process and Delphi TechniqueFocus GroupsSurveysPhase 2: Epidemiologic Assessment (Health-Genetics-Behavioral-Environmental)Writing Health ObjectivesGenetics, Behavioral, and Environmental AssessmentsWriting Behavioral ObjectivesEnvironmental AssessmentWriting Environmental ObjectivesSystematic Reviews and Rating of the Validity of the Evaluation LiteratureMeta-EvaluationMeta-AnalysisPhase 3: Educational and Ecologic AssessmentWriting Educational ObjectivesPhase 4: Administrative, Policy Assessment, and Intervention AlignmentDeveloping InterventionsDeveloping Organizational Arrangements-Logistics-Personnel TrainingDeveloping a Budget and Administrative PlanOther Program CostsYears 2 and 3Phase 5: ImplementationPhases 6-8: EvaluationCase Study: Clear Horizons—A Community-Based Quit Smoking Program for Midlife and Older SmokersEpidemiologic AssessmentSocial AssessmentBehavioral AssessmentEnvironmental AssessmentEducational AssessmentPredisposing FactorReinforcing FactorsEnabling FactorsAdministrative and Policy AnalysisHealth Education MethodsImplementationEvaluation MethodsProcess EvaluationImpact EvaluationLessons LearnedEfficacy and Effectiveness EvaluationIntroductionCategories of Evaluation DesignsEvaluation Design NotationFactors Affecting the Internal and External Validity of ResultsA Contemporary Synthesis of Biases to Internal ValidityMeasurement BiasSelection BiasHistorical BiasEvaluation Designs and BiasThreats to the External Validity of ResultsEvaluation Design SummaryDesign #i: One Group Pre-test and Post-testDesign #1 ExampleFormative Assessment EvaluationDesign #2: Non-Randomized Comparison (C) GroupDesign #2 ExampleDesign #3: Time SeriesEstablishing a Non-Randomized Comparison (C) GroupQuasi-Experimental Designs and BiasDesign #4: Randomized Pre-Test and Post-Test DesignEstablishing a Control (C) GroupRandom Assignment and Group ComparabilityCase Study i: A Group Randomized Design for School-Based EvaluationEvaluation Design: Controlling for Biases to Internal ValidityStratification and Matching of Schools Within a DistrictMeasurementE and C Group Baseline ComparabilityStatistical PowerDetermining the Sample Size for the E and C GroupsSample Size Estimates for Group Randomized DesignDetermining Sample Size for Pair-matched GRCT Using a Coefficient of VariationEvaluation Design Case Studies: Translating Population Health Science to HP-DP PracticeCase Study 2: A One Group Pre-Test + Post-Test Design for a Public Health PolicyMethodsDiscussion: Main FindingsComparison With Other ETS studiesDiscussion of Internal and External Validity of ResultsRecommendations for Future ETS Program Evaluations and ResearchCase Study 3: A Non-Randomized Comparison (C) Group Design for a State-Wide ProgramThe West Virginia (WV) Right From The Start (RFTS) ProgramThe SCRIPT ProgramThe SCRIPT Dissemination ProjectDCC Performance Metrics and Process Evaluation MethodsClient Assessment MethodsEffectiveness Evaluation MethodsProcess Evaluation ResultsEffectiveness Evaluation ResultsDiscussion of the Internal and External Validity of ResultsCase Study 4: A Time Series Design for a Community-Based Participatory EvaluationBackground and ObjectivesHealth Education Intervention MethodsEvaluation Design and MeasurementProgram ImpactDiscussion of Internal and External Validity of ResultsCase Study 5: A Time Series Design for a National Occupational Health Policy-ProgramMSHA InterventionInjury Measurement of Population at RiskEvaluation Design and AnalysisQuarterly Fatality RatesSerious Injury Rates by Aggregate Type, Ownership, and Production TrendsInjury SeverityPermanently Disabling Injury (PDI) RatesDiscussion of Internal Validity and External Validity of ResultsCase Study 6: An Experimental Design of a Community-Based HP-DP ProgramBackground and ObjectivesIntervention MethodsResults: Process EvaluationResults: Behavioral Impact AnalysisDiscussion of Internal and External Validity of ResultsCase Study 7: An Experimental Design for a State-Wide Primary Care-MCH Clinics—A Practice-Based EvaluationBackgroundProgram Evaluation DesignSCRIPT ProceduresMeasurement ProceduresProcess Evaluation ResultsImpact Evaluation ResultsDiscussion of Internal and External Validity of ResultsCase Study 8: A Group Randomized Community Trial for Rural Health CommunitiesMethodsSite SelectionInterventionSample Size Estimation-Pair Matched GRCTResultsHealth Outcome ResultsSummaryMeasurement and Analysis in EvaluationIntroductionMeasurement and Data CollectionConcepts, Constructs, and VariablesInstruments and MeasurementTypes of VariablesDemographic VariablesCognitive VariablesSkill VariablesPsycho-Social VariablesBehavioral VariablesEnvironmental VariablesHealth Status Indicators-VariablesVariable SummarySystematic and Random ErrorValidityFace ValidityContent ValidityCriterion ValidityMeasures of the Validity of a Biological-Physical TestValidity ExampleMeasurement Validity: Patient Knowledge and Self-Care Skill Case Study 1Construct Validity: Factor AnalysisCase Study 2: Factor Analysis for Scale Development and Construct Validity AssessmentResults: Factor and Convergent Validity AnalysesSAS Internal Consistency and StabilityReliabilityMethods to Assess ReliabilityInter-Rater ReliabilityInter-Rater ReliabilityRater Reliability ResultsReproducibility-ConsistencySplit-Half ReliabilityInternal Consistency and Item AnalysisCase Study 3: Internal Consistency and Item AnalysisTest-Retest or Stability ReliabilityRelationships Between Validity and ReliabilitySystematic Sources of ErrorCommon Biases to Valid and Reliable MeasurementCriteria for Selecting an Instrument and Data Collection MethodsEfficiency and Cost of MeasurementPurposes-Objectives of the EvaluationQuality Control in Data CollectionSampling and RepresentativenessQuestionnaire DevelopmentInstrument Development and Field TestingQuality ControlSelf-Completion QuestionnairesFace-to-Face InterviewingFace-to-Face Interviews and Interviewer TrainingTelephone InterviewingDirect ObservationsHealth-Clinical-Physiological MeasuresAbstraction of Existing Records: Medical and ClinicalStrengths and WeaknessesSteps in Abstracting Medical RecordsSummaryProcess and Qualitative EvaluationType III ErrorCultural CompetencyQuality Control MethodsInternal and External Program Reviews (EPR): Evaluability AssessmentsProgram Utilization and Record ReviewMonitoring Program ParticipationDocumenting Program-Session-Component ExposureFocus Group InterviewsComponent Pre-testingInstrument Development and Pre-testingMedia and MessagesWritten MaterialsVisual Materials-Radio-TelevisionHealth Message-Testing ServiceMedia Program Evaluation and Computer AnalysisReadability TestingA Process Evaluation Model: Documenting Fidelity and Quality of HP-DP Program DeliveryDefinition of HP-DP Intervention and Measurement ProceduresProgram or Practice Flow Analysis (PFA)Organizational Development and PFACase Study i: Process Evaluation Model, Smoke Free Families ProgramCase Study 2: A Peer-Delivered Health Promotion ProgramPeer TrainingProcess EvaluationCase Study 3: The Partners for Life ProgramStudy LocationProgram DevelopmentPeer Educator Recruitment and TrainingInstrumentation and MeasurementFormative Evaluation Design and Sample Size EstimationMeasurement and Analysis MethodsCase Study 4: A Diabetes Disease Management ProgramEvaluation DesignProcess Evaluation ResultsCase Study 5: Friendships and Dating ProgramFriendships and Dating Program (FDP)Training Facilitators for Program DeliverySocial Networks MeasureInterpersonal Violence InterviewProcess Evaluation ModelSocial Networks and Interpersonal Violence Outcome ResultsProcess Evaluation ResultsSmall Group Class ExerciseQualitative Evaluation MethodsCollecting Qualitative Data for EvaluationsAnalyzing Qualitative Data for EvaluationsStructured ObservationsCase Study 6: Observational Data in Evaluative ResearchIn-depth InterviewsIndividual InterviewsOpinion Leader SurveyCommunity Forum SurveyCentral Location SurveyCase Study 7: Individual InterviewsGroup InterviewsCase Study 8: Town Hall-Style InterviewsCase Study 9: Focus GroupsMixed Methods ResearchCase Study 10: Mixed MethodsBasic Cost Analysis and Economic EvaluationDevelopment of Cost and Economic Evaluations of HP-DP ProgramsIs HP-DP Cost-Effective?Purposes of Cost Analysis and Economic EvaluationTypes of Economic EvaluationCost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA)Cost-Utility Analysis (CUA)Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA)STEP i: Define the Economic Evaluation Question-Population-ProblemSTEP 2: Define the Program-Intervention Methods-SettingSTEP 3: Define the Cost PerspectiveClient PerspectiveAgency PerspectiveSTEP 4: Define Program Costs (Input) and Cost Analysis MethodsEquipment and Material CostsFacilities CostsAdjusting Costs: Inflation and DiscountingSTEP 5: Define Behavioral Impact or Health Outcome Rates (Output)Confirmation of Behavioral Impact and/or Health OutcomeSTEP 6: Perform a CEA or CBASTEP 7: Sensitivity Analysis (SA)-Vary Cost and Impact AssumptionsCost Analyses and CEA-CBA Case StudiesPatient Education InterventionBehavioral Impact ResultsCost Estimation and AnalysisCase Study 2: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Worksite Health Promotion ProgramsCase Study 3: A Cost Benefit Analysis for Dissemination of an Evidenced-Based ProgramSummary
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