Evaluation Design Case Studies: Translating Population Health Science to HP-DP Practice
Detailed discussions from seven case studies are presented to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses and the validity of evaluation results for Designs #1, #2, #3, and #4. They have been selected because they are part of the published literature and represent evaluations of different interventions for different problems, populations, and HP-DP program delivery settings, for example, schools, worksites, communities, or health clinic settings.
Case Study 2: A One Group Pre-Test + Post-Test Design for a Public Health Policy
J. Pearson, R. Windsor, A. El-Mohandes, and D. Perry, “A Formative Evaluation of the Immediate Impact of the Washington, D.C. Smoke-Free Indoor Air Policy on Bar Employee ETS Exposure,” Public Health Reports (August 2009) (see publication for references).
According to the 2006 Surgeon General’s report, even small levels of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure produce increased risks of coronary heart disease, lung cancer, stroke, and respiratory symptoms. Over the last decade, a large number of communities, states, and countries have passed smoking bans in restaurants and bars to protect employees. Impact evaluations of these laws have consistently reported significant reductions of ETS and improvements in employee health. In April 2006, the Washington, D.C., City Council passed a Smoke-Free Indoor Air Law. On January 2, 2007, the indoor smoking ban was initiated in bars, restaurants, and pool halls. The passage of this new law presented a unique opportunity to evaluate its immediate impact. This formative evaluation tested the hypothesis that the law significantly reduced cotinine-confirmed levels of ETS exposure by bartenders > 50%.